Kalibre: Knowledge-based Neural Surrogate Model Calibration for Data Center Digital Twins

29 Jan 2020  ·  Ruihang Wang, Xin Zhou, Linsen Dong, Yonggang Wen, Rui Tan, Li Chen, Guan Wang, Feng Zeng ·

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been widely used for prototyping data centers. Evolving it to high-fidelity {\em digital twin} is desirable for the management and operations of large-scale data centers. Manually calibrating CFD model parameters to achieve twin-class fidelity by specially trained domain expert is tedious and labor-intensive. To reduce manual efforts, existing automatic calibration approaches developed for various computational models apply heuristics to search model configurations within an empirically defined parameter bound. However, in the context of CFD, each search step requires long-lasting CFD model's iterated solving, rendering these approaches impractical with increased model complexity. This paper presents Kalibre, a knowledge-based neural surrogate approach that performs CFD model calibration by iterating four key steps of i) training a neural surrogate model based on CFD-generated data, ii) finding the optimal parameters at the moment through neural surrogate retraining based on sensor-measured data, iii) configuring the found parameters back to the CFD model, and iv) validating the CFD model using sensor-measured data as the ground truth. Thus, the parameter search is offloaded to the neural surrogate which is ultra-faster than CFD model's iterated solving. To speed up the convergence of Kalibre, we integrate prior knowledge of the twinned data center's thermophysics into the neural surrogate design to improve its learning efficiency. With about five hours computation on a 32-core processor, Kalibre achieves mean absolute errors (MAEs) of $0.81^o$C and $0.75^o$C in calibrating two CFD models for two production data halls hosting thousands of servers each while requires fewer CFD solving processes than existing baseline approaches.

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