A label-efficient two-sample test

17 Nov 2021  ·  Weizhi Li, Gautam Dasarathy, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Visar Berisha ·

Two-sample tests evaluate whether two samples are realizations of the same distribution (the null hypothesis) or two different distributions (the alternative hypothesis). We consider a new setting for this problem where sample features are easily measured whereas sample labels are unknown and costly to obtain. Accordingly, we devise a three-stage framework in service of performing an effective two-sample test with only a small number of sample label queries: first, a classifier is trained with samples uniformly labeled to model the posterior probabilities of the labels; second, a novel query scheme dubbed \emph{bimodal query} is used to query labels of samples from both classes, and last, the classical Friedman-Rafsky (FR) two-sample test is performed on the queried samples. Theoretical analysis and extensive experiments performed on several datasets demonstrate that the proposed test controls the Type I error and has decreased Type II error relative to uniform querying and certainty-based querying. Source code for our algorithms and experimental results is available at \url{https://github.com/wayne0908/Label-Efficient-Two-Sample}.

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