Length of Stay prediction for Hospital Management using Domain Adaptation

Inpatient length of stay (LoS) is an important managerial metric which if known in advance can be used to efficiently plan admissions, allocate resources and improve care. Using historical patient data and machine learning techniques, LoS prediction models can be developed. Ethically, these models can not be used for patient discharge in lieu of unit heads but are of utmost necessity for hospital management systems in charge of effective hospital planning. Therefore, the design of the prediction system should be adapted to work in a true hospital setting. In this study, we predict early hospital LoS at the granular level of admission units by applying domain adaptation to leverage information learned from a potential source domain. Time-varying data from 110,079 and 60,492 patient stays to 8 and 9 intensive care units were respectively extracted from eICU-CRD and MIMIC-IV. These were fed into a Long-Short Term Memory and a Fully connected network to train a source domain model, the weights of which were transferred either partially or fully to initiate training in target domains. Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) algorithms were used to study the effect of weight transfer on model explanability. Compared to the benchmark, the proposed weight transfer model showed statistically significant gains in prediction accuracy (between 1% and 5%) as well as computation time (up to 2hrs) for some target domains. The proposed method thus provides an adapted clinical decision support system for hospital management that can ease processes of data access via ethical committee, computation infrastructures and time.

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