LOKE: Linked Open Knowledge Extraction for Automated Knowledge Graph Construction

15 Nov 2023  ·  Jamie McCusker ·

While the potential of Open Information Extraction (Open IE) for Knowledge Graph Construction (KGC) may seem promising, we find that the alignment of Open IE extraction results with existing knowledge graphs to be inadequate. The advent of Large Language Models (LLMs), especially the commercially available OpenAI models, have reset expectations for what is possible with deep learning models and have created a new field called prompt engineering. We investigate the use of GPT models and prompt engineering for knowledge graph construction with the Wikidata knowledge graph to address a similar problem to Open IE, which we call Open Knowledge Extraction (OKE) using an approach we call the Linked Open Knowledge Extractor (LOKE, pronounced like "Loki"). We consider the entity linking task essential to construction of real world knowledge graphs. We merge the CaRB benchmark scoring approach with data from the TekGen dataset for the LOKE task. We then show that a well engineered prompt, paired with a naive entity linking approach (which we call LOKE-GPT), outperforms AllenAI's OpenIE 4 implementation on the OKE task, although it over-generates triples compared to the reference set due to overall triple scarcity in the TekGen set. Through an analysis of entity linkability in the CaRB dataset, as well as outputs from OpenIE 4 and LOKE-GPT, we see that LOKE-GPT and the "silver" TekGen triples show that the task is significantly different in content from OIE, if not structure. Through this analysis and a qualitative analysis of sentence extractions via all methods, we found that LOKE-GPT extractions are of high utility for the KGC task and suitable for use in semi-automated extraction settings.

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