Max-Pooling Loss Training of Long Short-Term Memory Networks for Small-Footprint Keyword Spotting

We propose a max-pooling based loss function for training Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks for small-footprint keyword spotting (KWS), with low CPU, memory, and latency requirements. The max-pooling loss training can be further guided by initializing with a cross-entropy loss trained network. A posterior smoothing based evaluation approach is employed to measure keyword spotting performance. Our experimental results show that LSTM models trained using cross-entropy loss or max-pooling loss outperform a cross-entropy loss trained baseline feed-forward Deep Neural Network (DNN). In addition, max-pooling loss trained LSTM with randomly initialized network performs better compared to cross-entropy loss trained LSTM. Finally, the max-pooling loss trained LSTM initialized with a cross-entropy pre-trained network shows the best performance, which yields $67.6\%$ relative reduction compared to baseline feed-forward DNN in Area Under the Curve (AUC) measure.

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