MetaFormer Is Actually What You Need for Vision

Transformers have shown great potential in computer vision tasks. A common belief is their attention-based token mixer module contributes most to their competence. However, recent works show the attention-based module in Transformers can be replaced by spatial MLPs and the resulted models still perform quite well. Based on this observation, we hypothesize that the general architecture of the Transformers, instead of the specific token mixer module, is more essential to the model's performance. To verify this, we deliberately replace the attention module in Transformers with an embarrassingly simple spatial pooling operator to conduct only basic token mixing. Surprisingly, we observe that the derived model, termed as PoolFormer, achieves competitive performance on multiple computer vision tasks. For example, on ImageNet-1K, PoolFormer achieves 82.1% top-1 accuracy, surpassing well-tuned Vision Transformer/MLP-like baselines DeiT-B/ResMLP-B24 by 0.3%/1.1% accuracy with 35%/52% fewer parameters and 50%/62% fewer MACs. The effectiveness of PoolFormer verifies our hypothesis and urges us to initiate the concept of "MetaFormer", a general architecture abstracted from Transformers without specifying the token mixer. Based on the extensive experiments, we argue that MetaFormer is the key player in achieving superior results for recent Transformer and MLP-like models on vision tasks. This work calls for more future research dedicated to improving MetaFormer instead of focusing on the token mixer modules. Additionally, our proposed PoolFormer could serve as a starting baseline for future MetaFormer architecture design. Code is available at

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Results from the Paper

Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Semantic Segmentation ADE20K PoolFormer-M48 Validation mIoU 42.7 # 206
Object Detection COCO minival PoolFormer-S36 (Mask R-CNN) box AP 41.0 # 155
AP50 63.1 # 52
AP75 44.8 # 63
Semantic Segmentation DensePASS PoolFormer (MiT-B1) mIoU 43.18% # 9
Image Classification ImageNet MetaFormer PoolFormer-M48 Top 1 Accuracy 82.5% # 479
Number of params 73M # 793
GFLOPs 23.2 # 375