Mix-Teaching: A Simple, Unified and Effective Semi-Supervised Learning Framework for Monocular 3D Object Detection

Monocular 3D object detection is an essential perception task for autonomous driving. However, the high reliance on large-scale labeled data make it costly and time-consuming during model optimization. To reduce such over-reliance on human annotations, we propose Mix-Teaching, an effective semi-supervised learning framework applicable to employ both labeled and unlabeled images in training stage. Mix-Teaching first generates pseudo-labels for unlabeled images by self-training. The student model is then trained on the mixed images possessing much more intensive and precise labeling by merging instance-level image patches into empty backgrounds or labeled images. This is the first to break the image-level limitation and put high-quality pseudo labels from multi frames into one image for semi-supervised training. Besides, as a result of the misalignment between confidence score and localization quality, it's hard to discriminate high-quality pseudo-labels from noisy predictions using only confidence-based criterion. To that end, we further introduce an uncertainty-based filter to help select reliable pseudo boxes for the above mixing operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first unified SSL framework for monocular 3D object detection. Mix-Teaching consistently improves MonoFlex and GUPNet by significant margins under various labeling ratios on KITTI dataset. For example, our method achieves around +6.34% AP@0.7 improvement against the GUPNet baseline on validation set when using only 10% labeled data. Besides, by leveraging full training set and the additional 48K raw images of KITTI, it can further improve the MonoFlex by +4.65% improvement on AP@0.7 for car detection, reaching 18.54% AP@0.7, which ranks the 1st place among all monocular based methods on KITTI test leaderboard. The code and pretrained models will be released at

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