PD-GAN: Probabilistic Diverse GAN for Image Inpainting

We propose PD-GAN, a probabilistic diverse GAN for image inpainting. Given an input image with arbitrary hole regions, PD-GAN produces multiple inpainting results with diverse and visually realistic content... Our PD-GAN is built upon a vanilla GAN which generates images based on random noise. During image generation, we modulate deep features of input random noise from coarse-to-fine by injecting an initially restored image and the hole regions in multiple scales. We argue that during hole filling, the pixels near the hole boundary should be more deterministic (i.e., with higher probability trusting the context and initially restored image to create natural inpainting boundary), while those pixels lie in the center of the hole should enjoy more degrees of freedom (i.e., more likely to depend on the random noise for enhancing diversity). To this end, we propose spatially probabilistic diversity normalization (SPDNorm) inside the modulation to model the probability of generating a pixel conditioned on the context information. SPDNorm dynamically balances the realism and diversity inside the hole region, making the generated content more diverse towards the hole center and resemble neighboring image content more towards the hole boundary. Meanwhile, we propose a perceptual diversity loss to further empower PD-GAN for diverse content generation. Experiments on benchmark datasets including CelebA-HQ, Places2 and Paris Street View indicate that PD-GAN is effective for diverse and visually realistic image restoration. read more

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