Per-sample Prediction Intervals for Extreme Learning Machines

19 Dec 2019  ·  Anton Akusok, Yoan Miche, Kaj-Mikael Björk, Amaury Lendasse ·

Prediction intervals in supervised Machine Learning bound the region where the true outputs of new samples may fall. They are necessary in the task of separating reliable predictions of a trained model from near random guesses, minimizing the rate of False Positives, and other problem-specific tasks in applied Machine Learning. Many real problems have heteroscedastic stochastic outputs, which explains the need of input-dependent prediction intervals. This paper proposes to estimate the input-dependent prediction intervals by a separate Extreme Learning Machine model, using variance of its predictions as a correction term accounting for the model uncertainty. The variance is estimated from the model's linear output layer with a weighted Jackknife method. The methodology is very fast, robust to heteroscedastic outputs, and handles both extremely large datasets and insufficient amount of training data.

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