Pixel-Perfect Structure-from-Motion with Featuremetric Refinement

Finding local features that are repeatable across multiple views is a cornerstone of sparse 3D reconstruction. The classical image matching paradigm detects keypoints per-image once and for all, which can yield poorly-localized features and propagate large errors to the final geometry. In this paper, we refine two key steps of structure-from-motion by a direct alignment of low-level image information from multiple views: we first adjust the initial keypoint locations prior to any geometric estimation, and subsequently refine points and camera poses as a post-processing. This refinement is robust to large detection noise and appearance changes, as it optimizes a featuremetric error based on dense features predicted by a neural network. This significantly improves the accuracy of camera poses and scene geometry for a wide range of keypoint detectors, challenging viewing conditions, and off-the-shelf deep features. Our system easily scales to large image collections, enabling pixel-perfect crowd-sourced localization at scale. Our code is publicly available at as an add-on to the popular SfM software COLMAP.

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