PIZZA: A new benchmark for complex end-to-end task-oriented parsing

Much recent work in task-oriented parsing has focused on finding a middle ground between flat slots and intents, which are inexpressive but easy to annotate, and powerful representations such as the lambda calculus, which are expressive but costly to annotate. This paper continues the exploration of task-oriented parsing by introducing a new dataset for parsing pizza and drink orders, whose semantics cannot be captured by flat slots and intents. We perform an extensive evaluation of deep-learning techniques for task-oriented parsing on this dataset, including different flavors of seq2seq systems and RNNGs. The dataset comes in two main versions, one in a recently introduced utterance-level hierarchical notation that we call TOP, and one whose targets are executable representations (EXR). We demonstrate empirically that training the parser to directly generate EXR notation not only solves the problem of entity resolution in one fell swoop and overcomes a number of expressive limitations of TOP notation, but also results in significantly greater parsing accuracy.

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