Predicting Blood Pressure Response to Fluid Bolus Therapy Using Attention-Based Neural Networks for Clinical Interpretability

Determining whether hypotensive patients in intensive care units (ICUs) should receive fluid bolus therapy (FBT) has been an extremely challenging task for intensive care physicians as the corresponding increase in blood pressure has been hard to predict. Our study utilized regression models and attention-based recurrent neural network (RNN) algorithms and a multi-clinical information system large-scale database to build models that can predict the successful response to FBT among hypotensive patients in ICUs. We investigated both time-aggregated modeling using logistic regression algorithms with regularization and time-series modeling using the long short term memory network (LSTM) and the gated recurrent units network (GRU) with the attention mechanism for clinical interpretability. Among all modeling strategies, the stacked LSTM with the attention mechanism yielded the most predictable model with the highest accuracy of 0.852 and area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.925. The study results may help identify hypotensive patients in ICUs who will have sufficient blood pressure recovery after FBT.

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