Proactive Rolling-Horizon based Scheduling of Hydrogen Systems for Resilient Power Grids

17 Jul 2021  ·  Hamed Haggi, Wei Sun, James M. Fenton, Paul Brooker ·

Deploying distributed energy resources (DERs) and other smart grid technologies have increased the complexity of power grids and made them more vulnerable to natural disasters and cyber-physical-human (CPH) threats. To deal with these extreme events, proactive plans are required by utilities to minimize the damages caused by CPH threats. This paper proposes a proactive rolling-horizon-based scheme for the resilience-oriented operation of hydrogen (H2) systems in integrated distribution and transmission networks. The proposed framework is a bi-level model in which the upper-level is focused on distribution system operation in both normal and emergency operation modes, and the lower-level problem accounts for the transmission network operation. Two preeminent aspects of H2 systems are considered in this paper, 1) to show the flexibility of H2 systems, capacity-based demand response signals are considered for electrolyzers, stationary fuel cell (FC) units, and H2 storage tanks are considered in both normal and emergency operation modes; 2) unlike the batteries which can only charge and discharge energy based on maximum duration times and power ratings, H2 systems can be considered as the flexible long-term energy storage by storing H2 for days and supplying power to FC in the case of \textit{N-m} outages lasting for more than 10 hours. Moreover, H2 production cost based on water electrolysis and storage costs is calculated. Simulation results demonstrate that utilities can improve the system-level resilience using H2 systems as long-term backup power resources.

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