Towards Practical Robustness Analysis for DNNs based on PAC-Model Learning

To analyse local robustness properties of deep neural networks (DNNs), we present a practical framework from a model learning perspective. Based on black-box model learning with scenario optimisation, we abstract the local behaviour of a DNN via an affine model with the probably approximately correct (PAC) guarantee. From the learned model, we can infer the corresponding PAC-model robustness property. The innovation of our work is the integration of model learning into PAC robustness analysis: that is, we construct a PAC guarantee on the model level instead of sample distribution, which induces a more faithful and accurate robustness evaluation. This is in contrast to existing statistical methods without model learning. We implement our method in a prototypical tool named DeepPAC. As a black-box method, DeepPAC is scalable and efficient, especially when DNNs have complex structures or high-dimensional inputs. We extensively evaluate DeepPAC, with 4 baselines (using formal verification, statistical methods, testing and adversarial attack) and 20 DNN models across 3 datasets, including MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet. It is shown that DeepPAC outperforms the state-of-the-art statistical method PROVERO, and it achieves more practical robustness analysis than the formal verification tool ERAN. Also, its results are consistent with existing DNN testing work like DeepGini.

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