Propagation measurements and channel models in Indoor Environment at 6.75 GHz FR1(C) and 16.95 GHz FR3 Upper-mid band Spectrum for 5G and 6G

New spectrum allocations in the 4--8 GHz FR1(C) and 7--24 GHz FR3 mid-band frequency spectrum are being considered for 5G/6G cellular deployments. This paper presents results from the world's first comprehensive indoor hotspot (InH) propagation measurement campaign at 6.75 GHz and 16.95 GHz in the NYU WIRELESS Research Center using a 1 GHz wideband channel sounder system over distances from 11 to 97 m in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS). Analysis of directional and omnidirectional path loss (PL) using the close-in free space 1 m reference distance model shows a familiar waveguiding effect in LOS with an omnidirectional path loss exponent (PLE) of 1.40 at 6.75 GHz and 1.32 at 16.95 GHz. Compared to mmWave frequencies, the directional NLOS PLEs are lower at FR3 and FR1(C), while omnidirectional NLOS PLEs are similar, suggesting better propagation distances at lower frequencies for links with omnidirectional antennas at both ends of the links, but also, importantly, showing that higher gain antennas will offer better coverage at higher frequencies when antenna apertures are kept same over all frequencies. Comparison of the omnidirectional and directional RMS delay spread (DS) at FR1(C) and FR3 with mmWave frequencies indicates a clear decrease with increasing frequency. The mean spatial lobe and omnidirectional RMS angular spread (AS) is found to be wider at 6.75 GHz compared to 16.95 GHz indicating more multipath components are found in the azimuthal spatial domain at lower frequencies.

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