PyEPO: A PyTorch-based End-to-End Predict-then-Optimize Library for Linear and Integer Programming

28 Jun 2022  ·  Bo Tang, Elias B. Khalil ·

In deterministic optimization, it is typically assumed that all parameters of the problem are fixed and known. In practice, however, some parameters may be a priori unknown but can be estimated from historical data. A typical predict-then-optimize approach separates predictions and optimization into two stages. Recently, end-to-end predict-then-optimize has become an attractive alternative. In this work, we present the PyEPO package, a PyTorch-based end-to-end predict-then-optimize library in Python. To the best of our knowledge, PyEPO (pronounced like "pineapple" with a silent "n") is the first such generic tool for linear and integer programming with predicted objective function coefficients. It provides two base algorithms: the first is based on the convex surrogate loss function from the seminal work of Elmachtoub & Grigas (2021), and the second is based on the differentiable black-box solver approach of Vlastelica et al. (2019). PyEPO provides a simple interface for the definition of new optimization problems, the implementation of state-of-the-art predict-then-optimize training algorithms, the use of custom neural network architectures, and the comparison of end-to-end approaches with the two-stage approach. PyEPO enables us to conduct a comprehensive set of experiments comparing a number of end-to-end and two-stage approaches along axes such as prediction accuracy, decision quality, and running time on problems such as Shortest Path, Multiple Knapsack, and the Traveling Salesperson Problem. We discuss some empirical insights from these experiments which could guide future research. PyEPO and its documentation are available at

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