R4: A Framework for Route Representation and Route Recommendation

20 Oct 2021  ·  Ran Cheng, Chao Chen, Longfei Xu, Shen Li, Lei Wang, Hengbin Cui, Kaikui Liu, Xiaolong Li ·

Route recommendation is significant in navigation service. Two major challenges for route recommendation are route representation and user representation. Different from items that can be identified by unique IDs in traditional recommendation, routes are combinations of links (i.e., a road segment and its following action like turning left) and the number of combinations could be close to infinite. Besides, the representation of a route changes under different scenarios. These facts result in severe sparsity of routes, which increases the difficulty of route representation. Moreover, link attribute deficiencies and errors affect preciseness of route representation. Because of the sparsity of routes, the interaction data between users and routes are also sparse. This makes it not easy to acquire user representation from historical user-item interactions as traditional recommendations do. To address these issues, we propose a novel learning framework R4. In R4, we design a sparse & dense network to obtain representations of routes. The sparse unit learns link ID embeddings and aggregates them to represent a route, which captures implicit route characteristics and subsequently alleviates problems caused by link attribute deficiencies and errors. The dense unit extracts implicit local features of routes from link attributes. For user representation, we utilize a series of historical navigation to extract user preference. R4 achieves remarkable performance in both offline and online experiments.

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