Rapidly evolving in humans topologically associating domains

20 Jul 2015  ·  Glinsky Gennadi ·

Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of 10,598 HSGRL within the context of the principal regulatory structures of the interphase chromatin, namely topologically-associating domains (TADs) and specific sub-TAD structures termed super-enhancer domains (SEDs) revealed that 0.8%-10.3% of TADs contain more than half of HSGRL. Of the 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome, 24 (0.8%); 53 (1.7%); 259 (8.3%); and 322 (10.3%) harbor 1,110 (52.4%); 1,936 (50.9%); 1,151 (59.6%); and 1,601 (58.3%) HSGRL sequences from four distinct families, respectively... TADs that are enriched for HSGRL and termed rapidly-evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) manifest distinct correlation patterns between HSGRL placements and recombination rates. There are significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (p < 0.0001 in all instances). In hESC genome, 331 of 504 (66%) of SE-harboring TADs contain HSGRL and 68% of SEs co-localize with HSGRL, suggesting that HSGRL rewired SE-driven GRNs within revTADs by inserting novel and/or erasing existing regulatory sequences. Consequently, markedly distinct features of chromatin structures evolved in hESC compared to mouse: the SE quantity is 3-fold higher and the median SE size is significantly larger; concomitantly, the TAD number is increased by 42% while the median TAD size is decreased (p=9.11E-37). Present analyses revealed a global role for HSGRL in increasing both quantity and size of SEs and increasing the number and size reduction of TADs, which may facilitate a convergence of TAD and SED architectures of interphase chromatin and define a trend of increasing regulatory complexity during evolution of GRNs. read more

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