ReFinED: An Efficient Zero-shot-capable Approach to End-to-End Entity Linking

We introduce ReFinED, an efficient end-to-end entity linking model which uses fine-grained entity types and entity descriptions to perform linking. The model performs mention detection, fine-grained entity typing, and entity disambiguation for all mentions within a document in a single forward pass, making it more than 60 times faster than competitive existing approaches. ReFinED also surpasses state-of-the-art performance on standard entity linking datasets by an average of 3.7 F1. The model is capable of generalising to large-scale knowledge bases such as Wikidata (which has 15 times more entities than Wikipedia) and of zero-shot entity linking. The combination of speed, accuracy and scale makes ReFinED an effective and cost-efficient system for extracting entities from web-scale datasets, for which the model has been successfully deployed. Our code and pre-trained models are available at

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Results from the Paper

 Ranked #1 on Entity Linking on WebQSP-WD (using extra training data)

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Uses Extra
Training Data
Entity Disambiguation ACE2004 ReFinED Micro-F1 91.6 # 3
Entity Typing AIDA-CoNLL ReFinED Micro-F1 84.0 # 1
Entity Linking AIDA-CoNLL ReFinED Micro-F1 strong 84.0 # 3
Entity Disambiguation AIDA-CoNLL ReFinED In-KB Accuracy 93.9 # 8
Entity Disambiguation AQUAINT ReFinED Micro-F1 91.8 # 3
Entity Linking Derczynski ReFinED Micro-F1 50.7 # 2
Micro-F1 strong 50.7 # 1
Entity Linking KORE50 ReFinED Micro-F1 strong 64.7 # 1
Micro-F1 65.9 # 1
Entity Linking MSNBC ReFinED Micro-F1 71.8 # 5
Micro-F1 strong 71.8 # 1
Entity Disambiguation MSNBC ReFinED Micro-F1 94.4 # 3
Entity Linking N3-Reuters-128 ReFinED Micro-F1 58.1 # 1
Micro-F1 strong 58.1 # 1
Entity Linking OKE-2015 ReFinED Micro-F1 65.0 # 2
Micro-F1 strong 64.4 # 1
Entity Linking OKE-2016 ReFinED Micro-F1 59.5 # 1
Micro-F1 strong 59.1 # 1
Entity Linking WebQSP-WD ReFinED F1 89.1 # 1
Entity Disambiguation WNED-CWEB ReFinED Micro-F1 79.4 # 1
Entity Disambiguation WNED-WIKI ReFinED Micro-F1 88.7 # 3


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