Representing Prior Knowledge Using Randomly, Weighted Feature Networks for Visual Relationship Detection

The single-hidden-layer Randomly Weighted Feature Network (RWFN) introduced by Hong and Pavlic (2021) was developed as an alternative to neural tensor network approaches for relational learning tasks. Its relatively small footprint combined with the use of two randomized input projections -- an insect-brain-inspired input representation and random Fourier features -- allow it to achieve rich expressiveness for relational learning with relatively low training cost. In particular, when Hong and Pavlic compared RWFN to Logic Tensor Networks (LTNs) for Semantic Image Interpretation (SII) tasks to extract structured semantic descriptions from images, they showed that the RWFN integration of the two hidden, randomized representations better captures relationships among inputs with a faster training process even though it uses far fewer learnable parameters. In this paper, we use RWFNs to perform Visual Relationship Detection (VRD) tasks, which are more challenging SII tasks. A zero-shot learning approach is used with RWFN that can exploit similarities with other seen relationships and background knowledge -- expressed with logical constraints between subjects, relations, and objects -- to achieve the ability to predict triples that do not appear in the training set. The experiments on the Visual Relationship Dataset to compare the performance between RWFNs and LTNs, one of the leading Statistical Relational Learning frameworks, show that RWFNs outperform LTNs for the predicate-detection task while using fewer number of adaptable parameters (1:56 ratio). Furthermore, background knowledge represented by RWFNs can be used to alleviate the incompleteness of training sets even though the space complexity of RWFNs is much smaller than LTNs (1:27 ratio).

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