RIS Enhanced Massive Non-orthogonal Multiple Access Networks: Deployment and Passive Beamforming Design

A novel framework is proposed for the deployment and passive beamforming design of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) with the aid of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology. The problem of joint deployment, phase shift design, as well as power allocation is formulated for maximizing the energy efficiency with considering users' particular data requirements. To tackle this pertinent problem, machine learning approaches are adopted in two steps. Firstly, a novel long short-term memory (LSTM) based echo state network (ESN) algorithm is proposed to predict users' tele-traffic demand by leveraging a real dataset. Secondly, a decaying double deep Q-network (D3QN) based position-acquisition and phase-control algorithm is proposed to solve the joint problem of deployment and design of the RIS. In the proposed algorithm, the base station, which controls the RIS by a controller, acts as an agent. The agent periodically observes the state of the RIS-enhanced system for attaining the optimal deployment and design policies of the RIS by learning from its mistakes and the feedback of users. Additionally, it is proved that the proposed D3QN based deployment and design algorithm is capable of converging within mild conditions. Simulation results are provided for illustrating that the proposed LSTM-based ESN algorithm is capable of striking a tradeoff between the prediction accuracy and computational complexity. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed D3QN based algorithm outperforms the benchmarks, while the NOMA-enhanced RIS system is capable of achieving higher energy efficiency than orthogonal multiple access (OMA) enabled RIS system.

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