Quantitative characterization of disease progression using longitudinal data can provide long-term predictions for the pathological stages of individuals. This work studies the robust modeling of Alzheimer's disease progression using parametric methods. The proposed method linearly maps the individual's age to a disease progression score (DPS) and jointly fits constrained generalized logistic functions to the longitudinal dynamics of biomarkers as functions of the DPS using M-estimation. Robustness of the estimates is quantified using bootstrapping via Monte Carlo resampling, and the estimated inflection points of the fitted functions are used to temporally order the modeled biomarkers in the disease course. Kernel density estimation is applied to the obtained DPSs for clinical status classification using a Bayesian classifier. Different M-estimators and logistic functions, including a novel type proposed in this study, called modified Stannard, are evaluated on the data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) for robust modeling of volumetric MRI and PET biomarkers, CSF measurements, as well as cognitive tests. The results show that the modified Stannard function fitted using the logistic loss achieves the best modeling performance with an average normalized MAE of 0.991 across all biomarkers and bootstraps. Applied to the ADNI test set, this model achieves a multiclass AUC of 0.934 in clinical status classification. The obtained results for the proposed model outperform almost all state-of-the-art results in predicting biomarker values and classifying clinical status. Finally, the experiments show that the proposed model, trained using abundant ADNI data, generalizes well to data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) with an average normalized MAE of 1.182 and a multiclass AUC of 0.929.