RTGPU: Real-Time GPU Scheduling of Hard Deadline Parallel Tasks with Fine-Grain Utilization

25 Jan 2021  ·  An Zou, Jing Li, Christopher D. Gill, Xuan Zhang ·

Many emerging cyber-physical systems, such as autonomous vehicles and robots, rely heavily on artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to perform important system operations. Since these highly parallel applications are computationally intensive, they need to be accelerated by graphics processing units (GPUs) to meet stringent timing constraints. However, despite the wide adoption of GPUs, efficiently scheduling multiple GPU applications while providing rigorous real-time guarantees remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose RTGPU, which can schedule the execution of multiple GPU applications in real-time to meet hard deadlines. Each GPU application can have multiple CPU execution and memory copy segments, as well as GPU kernels. We start with a model to explicitly account for the CPU and memory copy segments of these applications. We then consider the GPU architecture in the development of a precise timing model for the GPU kernels and leverage a technique known as persistent threads to implement fine-grained kernel scheduling with improved performance through interleaved execution. Next, we propose a general method for scheduling parallel GPU applications in real time. Finally, to schedule multiple parallel GPU applications, we propose a practical real-time scheduling algorithm based on federated scheduling and grid search (for GPU kernel segments) with uniprocessor fixed priority scheduling (for multiple CPU and memory copy segments). Our approach provides superior schedulability compared with previous work, and gives real-time guarantees to meet hard deadlines for multiple GPU applications according to comprehensive validation and evaluation on a real NVIDIA GTX1080Ti GPU system.

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