S3: A Spectral-Spatial Structure Loss for Pan-Sharpening Networks

Recently, many deep-learning-based pan-sharpening methods have been proposed for generating high-quality pan-sharpened (PS) satellite images. These methods focused on various types of convolutional neural network (CNN) structures, which were trained by simply minimizing a spectral loss between network outputs and the corresponding high-resolution multi-spectral (MS) target images. However, due to different sensor characteristics and acquisition times, high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) and low-resolution MS image pairs tend to have large pixel misalignments, especially for moving objects in the images. Conventional CNNs trained with only the spectral loss with these satellite image datasets often produce PS images of low visual quality including double-edge artifacts along strong edges and ghosting artifacts on moving objects. In this letter, we propose a novel loss function, called a spectral-spatial structure (S3) loss, based on the correlation maps between MS targets and PAN inputs. Our proposed S3 loss can be very effectively utilized for pan-sharpening with various types of CNN structures, resulting in significant visual improvements on PS images with suppressed artifacts.

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