Seeking Subjectivity in Visual Emotion Distribution Learning

25 Jul 2022  ·  Jingyuan Yang, Jie Li, Leida Li, Xiumei Wang, Yuxuan Ding, Xinbo Gao ·

Visual Emotion Analysis (VEA), which aims to predict people's emotions towards different visual stimuli, has become an attractive research topic recently. Rather than a single label classification task, it is more rational to regard VEA as a Label Distribution Learning (LDL) problem by voting from different individuals. Existing methods often predict visual emotion distribution in a unified network, neglecting the inherent subjectivity in its crowd voting process. In psychology, the \textit{Object-Appraisal-Emotion} model has demonstrated that each individual's emotion is affected by his/her subjective appraisal, which is further formed by the affective memory. Inspired by this, we propose a novel \textit{Subjectivity Appraise-and-Match Network (SAMNet)} to investigate the subjectivity in visual emotion distribution. To depict the diversity in crowd voting process, we first propose the \textit{Subjectivity Appraising} with multiple branches, where each branch simulates the emotion evocation process of a specific individual. Specifically, we construct the affective memory with an attention-based mechanism to preserve each individual's unique emotional experience. A subjectivity loss is further proposed to guarantee the divergence between different individuals. Moreover, we propose the \textit{Subjectivity Matching} with a matching loss, aiming at assigning unordered emotion labels to ordered individual predictions in a one-to-one correspondence with the Hungarian algorithm. Extensive experiments and comparisons are conducted on public visual emotion distribution datasets, and the results demonstrate that the proposed SAMNet consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Ablation study verifies the effectiveness of our method and visualization proves its interpretability.

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