Semi-supervised Learning using Robust Loss

3 Mar 2022  ·  Wenhui Cui, Haleh Akrami, Anand A. Joshi, Richard M. Leahy ·

The amount of manually labeled data is limited in medical applications, so semi-supervised learning and automatic labeling strategies can be an asset for training deep neural networks. However, the quality of the automatically generated labels can be uneven and inferior to manual labels. In this paper, we suggest a semi-supervised training strategy for leveraging both manually labeled data and extra unlabeled data. In contrast to the existing approaches, we apply robust loss for the automated labeled data to automatically compensate for the uneven data quality using a teacher-student framework. First, we generate pseudo-labels for unlabeled data using a teacher model pre-trained on labeled data. These pseudo-labels are noisy, and using them along with labeled data for training a deep neural network can severely degrade learned feature representations and the generalization of the network. Here we mitigate the effect of these pseudo-labels by using robust loss functions. Specifically, we use three robust loss functions, namely beta cross-entropy, symmetric cross-entropy, and generalized cross-entropy. We show that our proposed strategy improves the model performance by compensating for the uneven quality of labels in image classification as well as segmentation applications.

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