Shallow Feature Matters for Weakly Supervised Object Localization

Weakly supervised object localization (WSOL) aims to localize objects by only utilizing image-level labels. Class activation maps (CAMs) are the commonly used features to achieve WSOL. However, previous CAM-based methods did not take full advantage of the shallow features, despite their importance for WSOL. Because shallow features are easily buried in background noise through conventional fusion. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective Shallow feature-aware Pseudo supervised Object Localization (SPOL) model for accurate WSOL, which makes the utmost of low-level features embedded in shallow layers. In practice, our SPOL model first generates the CAMs through a novel element-wise multiplication of shallow and deep feature maps, which filters the background noise and generates sharper boundaries robustly. Besides, we further propose a general class-agnostic segmentation model to achieve the accurate object mask, by only using the initial CAMs as the pseudo label without any extra annotation. Eventually, a bounding box extractor is applied to the object mask to locate the target. Experiments verify that our SPOL outperforms the state-of-the-art on both CUB-200 and ImageNet-1K benchmarks, achieving 93.44% and 67.15% (i.e., 3.93% and 2.13% improvement) Top-5 localization accuracy, respectively.

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