Test-time Batch Statistics Calibration for Covariate Shift

6 Oct 2021  ·  Fuming You, Jingjing Li, Zhou Zhao ·

Deep neural networks have a clear degradation when applying to the unseen environment due to the covariate shift. Conventional approaches like domain adaptation requires the pre-collected target data for iterative training, which is impractical in real-world applications... In this paper, we propose to adapt the deep models to the novel environment during inference. An previous solution is test time normalization, which substitutes the source statistics in BN layers with the target batch statistics. However, we show that test time normalization may potentially deteriorate the discriminative structures due to the mismatch between target batch statistics and source parameters. To this end, we present a general formulation $\alpha$-BN to calibrate the batch statistics by mixing up the source and target statistics for both alleviating the domain shift and preserving the discriminative structures. Based on $\alpha$-BN, we further present a novel loss function to form a unified test time adaptation framework Core, which performs the pairwise class correlation online optimization. Extensive experiments show that our approaches achieve the state-of-the-art performance on total twelve datasets from three topics, including model robustness to corruptions, domain generalization on image classification and semantic segmentation. Particularly, our $\alpha$-BN improves 28.4\% to 43.9\% on GTA5 $\rightarrow$ Cityscapes without any training, even outperforms the latest source-free domain adaptation method. read more

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