Two-stage Discriminative Re-ranking for Large-scale Landmark Retrieval

25 Mar 2020  ·  Shuhei Yokoo, Kohei Ozaki, Edgar Simo-Serra, Satoshi Iizuka ·

We propose an efficient pipeline for large-scale landmark image retrieval that addresses the diversity of the dataset through two-stage discriminative re-ranking. Our approach is based on embedding the images in a feature-space using a convolutional neural network trained with a cosine softmax loss. Due to the variance of the images, which include extreme viewpoint changes such as having to retrieve images of the exterior of a landmark from images of the interior, this is very challenging for approaches based exclusively on visual similarity. Our proposed re-ranking approach improves the results in two steps: in the sort-step, $k$-nearest neighbor search with soft-voting to sort the retrieved results based on their label similarity to the query images, and in the insert-step, we add additional samples from the dataset that were not retrieved by image-similarity. This approach allows overcoming the low visual diversity in retrieved images. In-depth experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms existing approaches on the challenging Google Landmarks Datasets. Using our methods, we achieved 1st place in the Google Landmark Retrieval 2019 challenge and 3rd place in the Google Landmark Recognition 2019 challenge on Kaggle. Our code is publicly available here: \url{}

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