Uni-MoE: Scaling Unified Multimodal LLMs with Mixture of Experts

18 May 2024  ·  Yunxin Li, Shenyuan Jiang, Baotian Hu, Longyue Wang, Wanqi Zhong, Wenhan Luo, Lin Ma, Min Zhang ·

Recent advancements in Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) underscore the significance of scalable models and data to boost performance, yet this often incurs substantial computational costs. Although the Mixture of Experts (MoE) architecture has been employed to efficiently scale large language and image-text models, these efforts typically involve fewer experts and limited modalities. To address this, our work presents the pioneering attempt to develop a unified MLLM with the MoE architecture, named Uni-MoE that can handle a wide array of modalities. Specifically, it features modality-specific encoders with connectors for a unified multimodal representation. We also implement a sparse MoE architecture within the LLMs to enable efficient training and inference through modality-level data parallelism and expert-level model parallelism. To enhance the multi-expert collaboration and generalization, we present a progressive training strategy: 1) Cross-modality alignment using various connectors with different cross-modality data, 2) Training modality-specific experts with cross-modality instruction data to activate experts' preferences, and 3) Tuning the Uni-MoE framework utilizing Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA) on mixed multimodal instruction data. We evaluate the instruction-tuned Uni-MoE on a comprehensive set of multimodal datasets. The extensive experimental results demonstrate Uni-MoE's principal advantage of significantly reducing performance bias in handling mixed multimodal datasets, alongside improved multi-expert collaboration and generalization. Our findings highlight the substantial potential of MoE frameworks in advancing MLLMs and the code is available at https://github.com/HITsz-TMG/UMOE-Scaling-Unified-Multimodal-LLMs.

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Results from the Paper

Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Visual Question Answering MM-Vet Uni-MoE GPT-4 score 32.8 # 85