UnifiedSKG: Unifying and Multi-Tasking Structured Knowledge Grounding with Text-to-Text Language Models

Structured knowledge grounding (SKG) leverages structured knowledge to complete user requests, such as semantic parsing over databases and question answering over knowledge bases. Since the inputs and outputs of SKG tasks are heterogeneous, they have been studied separately by different communities, which limits systematic and compatible research on SKG. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by proposing the SKG framework, which unifies 21 SKG tasks into a text-to-text format, aiming to promote systematic SKG research, instead of being exclusive to a single task, domain, or dataset. We use UnifiedSKG to benchmark T5 with different sizes and show that T5, with simple modifications when necessary, achieves state-of-the-art performance on almost all of the 21 tasks. We further demonstrate that multi-task prefix-tuning improves the performance on most tasks, largely improving the overall performance. UnifiedSKG also facilitates the investigation of zero-shot and few-shot learning, and we show that T0, GPT-3, and Codex struggle in zero-shot and few-shot learning for SKG. We also use UnifiedSKG to conduct a series of controlled experiments on structured knowledge encoding variants across SKG tasks. UnifiedSKG is easily extensible to more tasks, and it is open-sourced at https://github.com/hkunlp/unifiedskg Latest collections at https://unifiedskg.com.

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems KVRET T5-3b(UnifiedSKG) Entity F1 70.07 # 1
Table-based Fact Verification TabFact T5-3b(UnifiedSKG) Test 83.68 # 2
Val 83.97 # 2
Semantic Parsing WikiTableQuestions T5-3b(UnifiedSKG) Accuracy (Dev) 50.65 # 3
Accuracy (Test) 49.29 # 3