Use of a Capsule Network to Detect Fake Images and Videos

28 Oct 2019  ·  Huy H. Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen ·

The revolution in computer hardware, especially in graphics processing units and tensor processing units, has enabled significant advances in computer graphics and artificial intelligence algorithms. In addition to their many beneficial applications in daily life and business, computer-generated/manipulated images and videos can be used for malicious purposes that violate security systems, privacy, and social trust. The deepfake phenomenon and its variations enable a normal user to use his or her personal computer to easily create fake videos of anybody from a short real online video. Several countermeasures have been introduced to deal with attacks using such videos. However, most of them are targeted at certain domains and are ineffective when applied to other domains or new attacks. In this paper, we introduce a capsule network that can detect various kinds of attacks, from presentation attacks using printed images and replayed videos to attacks using fake videos created using deep learning. It uses many fewer parameters than traditional convolutional neural networks with similar performance. Moreover, we explain, for the first time ever in the literature, the theory behind the application of capsule networks to the forensics problem through detailed analysis and visualization.

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