Vehicular Behavior-Aware Beamforming Design for Integrated Sensing and Communication Systems

27 Feb 2023  ·  Dingyan Cong, Shuaishuai Guo, Shuping Dang, Haixia Zhang ·

Communication and sensing are two important features of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). In traditional vehicle-mounted devices, communication and sensing modules exist but in an isolated way, resulting in a waste of hardware resources and wireless spectrum. In this paper, to cope with the above inefficiency, we propose a vehicular behavior-aware integrated sensing and communication (VBA-ISAC) beamforming design for the vehicle-mounted transmitter with multiple antennas. In this work, beams are steered based on vehicular behaviors to assist driving and meanwhile provide spectral-efficient uplink data services with the help of a roadside unit (RSU). Specifically, we first predict the area of interest (AoI) to be sensed based on the vehicles' trajectories. Then, we formulate a VBA-ISAC beamforming design problem to sense the AoI while maximizing the spectral efficiency of uplink communications, where a trade-off factor is introduced to balance the communication and sensing performance. A semi-definite relaxation-based beampattern mismatch minimization (SDR-BMM) algorithm is proposed to solve the formulated problem. To reduce the hardware cost and power consumption, we further improve the proposed VBA-ISAC beamforming design by introducing the hybrid analog-digital (HAD) structure. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of VBA-ISAC scheme and show that the proposed beamforming design outperforms the benchmarks in both spectral efficiency and radar beampattern.

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