Waveform Design for Joint Sensing and Communications in Millimeter-Wave and Low Terahertz Bands

3 Jun 2021  ·  Tianqi Mao, Jiaxuan Chen, Qi Wang, Chong Han, Zhaocheng Wang, George K. Karagiannidis ·

The convergence of sensing and communication in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) and low terahertz (THz) bands has been envisioned as a promising technology, since it incorporates high-rate data transmission of hundreds of Gbps and mm-level radar sensing in a spectrum- and cost-efficient manner, by sharing both the frequency and hardware resources. However, the joint radar sensing and communication (JRC) system faces considerable challenges in the mmWave and low-THz scale, due to the peculiarities of the propagation channel and radio-frequency (RF) front ends. To this end, the waveform design for the JRC systems in mmWave and low-THz bands with ultra-broad bandwidth is investigated in this paper. Firstly, by considering the JRC design based on the co-existence concept, where both functions operate in a time-domain duplex (TDD) manner, a novel multi-subband quasi-perfect (MS-QP) sequence, composed of multiple perfect subsequences on different subbands, is proposed for target sensing, which achieves accurate target ranging and velocity estimation, whilst only requiring cost-efficient low-rate analog-to-digital converters (A/Ds) for sequence detection. Furthermore, the root index of each perfect subsequence is designed to eliminate the influence of strong Doppler shift on radar sensing. Finally, a data-embedded MS-QP (DE-MS-QP) waveform is constructed through time-domain extension of the MS-QP sequence, generating null frequency points on each subband for data transmission. Unlike the co-existence-based JRC system in TDD manner, the proposed DE-MS-QP waveform enables simultaneous interference-free sensing and communication, whilst inheriting all the merits from MS-QP sequences. Numerical results validate the superiority of the proposed waveforms regarding the communication and sensing performances, hardware cost as well as flexibility of the resource allocation between the dual functions.

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