The two fundamental bottlenecks in Federated Learning (FL) are communication and computation on heterogeneous edge networks, restricting both model capacity and user participation.
We further present a hybrid shaping (HS) design to gain the combined benefits of both PS and geometric shaping (GS).
The paper models the exhaled breath as a cloud which is emitted through the room continuously, and analyzes the temporal-spatial virus concentration by accounting for partial absorption and reflection at each side of the room.
To exploit the spatial gain of OFDM-SNM, we propose a relay assisted OFDM-SNM scheme for multi-hop cooperative systems in this letter.
To reveal the computing efficiency of the proposed power allocation scheme, we analyze its computational complexity.
The deviation of continuous and discrete complex random variables from the traditional proper and symmetric assumption to a generalized improper and asymmetric characterization (accounting correlation between a random entity and its complex conjugate), respectively, introduces new design freedom and various potential merits.
A novel modulation scheme termed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing with subcarrier number modulation (OFDM-SNM) has been proposed and regarded as one of the promising candidate modulation schemes for next generation networks.
Smart building (SB), a promising solution to fast-paced and continuous urbanization around the world, includes the integration of a wide range of systems and services and involves the construction of multiple layers.
Networking and Internet Architecture