Search Results for author: Bo Zhang

Found 200 papers, 89 papers with code

Understanding and Stabilizing GANs' Training Dynamics Using Control Theory

no code implementations ICML 2020 Kun Xu, Chongxuan Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

There are existing efforts that model the training dynamics of GANs in the parameter space but the analysis cannot directly motivate practically effective stabilizing methods.

Make-It-3D: High-Fidelity 3D Creation from A Single Image with Diffusion Prior

1 code implementation24 Mar 2023 Junshu Tang, Tengfei Wang, Bo Zhang, Ting Zhang, Ran Yi, Lizhuang Ma, Dong Chen

In this work, we investigate the problem of creating high-fidelity 3D content from only a single image.

Text to 3D

Pi-ViMo: Physiology-inspired Robust Vital Sign Monitoring using mmWave Radars

no code implementations24 Mar 2023 Bo Zhang, Boyu Jiang, Rong Zheng, XiaoPing Zhang, Jun Li, Qiang Xu

In this paper, we address these limitations and present "Pi-ViMo", a non-contact Physiology-inspired Robust Vital Sign Monitoring system, using mmWave radars.

Template Matching

MMFormer: Multimodal Transformer Using Multiscale Self-Attention for Remote Sensing Image Classification

no code implementations23 Mar 2023 Bo Zhang, Zuheng Ming, Wei Feng, Yaqian Liu, Liang He, Kaixing Zhao

To benefit the complementary information between heterogeneous data, we introduce a new Multimodal Transformer (MMFormer) for Remote Sensing (RS) image classification using Hyperspectral Image (HSI) accompanied by another source of data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR).

Image Classification Remote Sensing Image Classification

Performance-aware Approximation of Global Channel Pruning for Multitask CNNs

1 code implementation21 Mar 2023 Hancheng Ye, Bo Zhang, Tao Chen, Jiayuan Fan, Bin Wang

Global channel pruning (GCP) aims to remove a subset of channels (filters) across different layers from a deep model without hurting the performance.

Model Compression

Anchor-Based Adversarially Robust Zero-Shot Learning Driven by Language

no code implementations30 Jan 2023 Xiao Li, Wei zhang, Yining Liu, Zhanhao Hu, Bo Zhang, Xiaolin Hu

LAAT uses a text encoder to obtain fixed anchors (normalized feature embeddings) of each category, then uses these anchors to perform adversarial training.

Adversarial Defense Adversarial Robustness +3

AI of Brain and Cognitive Sciences: From the Perspective of First Principles

no code implementations20 Jan 2023 Luyao Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Longsheng Jiang, Xiang Liu, Linlu Xu, Bo Zhang, Xiaolong Zou, Jinying Gao, Yu Zhu, Xizi Gong, Shan Yu, Sen Song, Liangyi Chen, Fang Fang, Si Wu, Jia Liu

Nowadays, we have witnessed the great success of AI in various applications, including image classification, game playing, protein structure analysis, language translation, and content generation.

Few-Shot Learning Image Classification

Danlu Tongdu tablets treat lumbar spinal stenosis through reducing reactive oxygen species and apoptosis by regulating CDK2/CDK4/CDKN1A expression

no code implementations18 Jan 2023 Xue Bai, Ayesha T. Tahir, Zhengheng Yu, Wenbo Cheng, Bo Zhang, Jun Kang

Furthermore, the flow cytometry results showed that DLTD tablets efficiently reduced ROS content and inhibited rat neural stem cell apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide.

DarkVision: A Benchmark for Low-light Image/Video Perception

no code implementations16 Jan 2023 Bo Zhang, Yuchen Guo, Runzhao Yang, Zhihong Zhang, Jiayi Xie, Jinli Suo, Qionghai Dai

In this paper, we contribute the first multi-illuminance, multi-camera, and low-light dataset, named DarkVision, serving for both image enhancement and object detection.

Autonomous Driving Image Enhancement +4

YOLOv6 v3.0: A Full-Scale Reloading

3 code implementations13 Jan 2023 Chuyi Li, Lulu Li, Yifei Geng, Hongliang Jiang, Meng Cheng, Bo Zhang, Zaidan Ke, Xiaoming Xu, Xiangxiang Chu

For a glimpse of performance, our YOLOv6-N hits 37. 5% AP on the COCO dataset at a throughput of 1187 FPS tested with an NVIDIA Tesla T4 GPU.

Real-Time Object Detection

Simultaneously Optimizing Perturbations and Positions for Black-box Adversarial Patch Attacks

1 code implementation26 Dec 2022 Xingxing Wei, Ying Guo, Jie Yu, Bo Zhang

Extensive experiments are conducted on the Face Recognition (FR) task, and results on four representative FR models show that our method can significantly improve the attack success rate and query efficiency.

Face Recognition Real-World Adversarial Attack +1

UniDA3D: Unified Domain Adaptive 3D Semantic Segmentation Pipeline

1 code implementation20 Dec 2022 Ben Fei, Siyuan Huang, Jiakang Yuan, Botian Shi, Bo Zhang, Weidong Yang, Min Dou, Yikang Li

Different from previous studies that only focus on a single adaptation task, UniDA3D can tackle several adaptation tasks in 3D segmentation field, by designing a unified source-and-target active sampling strategy, which selects a maximally-informative subset from both source and target domains for effective model adaptation.

3D Semantic Segmentation Domain Generalization +1

Rodin: A Generative Model for Sculpting 3D Digital Avatars Using Diffusion

no code implementations12 Dec 2022 Tengfei Wang, Bo Zhang, Ting Zhang, Shuyang Gu, Jianmin Bao, Tadas Baltrusaitis, Jingjing Shen, Dong Chen, Fang Wen, Qifeng Chen, Baining Guo

This paper presents a 3D generative model that uses diffusion models to automatically generate 3D digital avatars represented as neural radiance fields.

Make RepVGG Greater Again: A Quantization-aware Approach

no code implementations3 Dec 2022 Xiangxiang Chu, Liang Li, Bo Zhang

The tradeoff between performance and inference speed is critical for practical applications.


Instance-aware Model Ensemble With Distillation For Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

no code implementations15 Nov 2022 Weimin Wu, Jiayuan Fan, Tao Chen, Hancheng Ye, Bo Zhang, Baopu Li

To enhance the model, adaptability between domains and reduce the computational cost when deploying the ensemble model, we propose a novel framework, namely Instance aware Model Ensemble With Distillation, IMED, which fuses multiple UDA component models adaptively according to different instances and distills these components into a small model.

Knowledge Distillation Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Better Pre-Training by Reducing Representation Confusion

no code implementations9 Oct 2022 Haojie Zhang, Mingfei Liang, Ruobing Xie, Zhenlong Sun, Bo Zhang, Leyu Lin

Motivated by the above investigation, we propose two novel techniques to improve pre-trained language models: Decoupled Directional Relative Position (DDRP) encoding and MTH pre-training objective.

Language Modelling Representation Learning

EAPruning: Evolutionary Pruning for Vision Transformers and CNNs

no code implementations1 Oct 2022 Qingyuan Li, Bo Zhang, Xiangxiang Chu

In this paper, we undertake a simple and effective approach that can be easily applied to both vision transformers and convolutional neural networks.

3DFaceShop: Explicitly Controllable 3D-Aware Portrait Generation

1 code implementation12 Sep 2022 Junshu Tang, Bo Zhang, Binxin Yang, Ting Zhang, Dong Chen, Lizhuang Ma, Fang Wen

In contrast to the traditional avatar creation pipeline which is a costly process, contemporary generative approaches directly learn the data distribution from photographs.

3D Face Animation Disentanglement +3

LogLG: Weakly Supervised Log Anomaly Detection via Log-Event Graph Construction

no code implementations23 Aug 2022 Hongcheng Guo, Yuhui Guo, Jian Yang, Jiaheng Liu, Zhoujun Li, Tieqiao Zheng, Weichao Hou, Liangfan Zheng, Bo Zhang

Experiments on five benchmarks validate the effectiveness of LogLG for detecting anomalies on unlabeled log data and demonstrate that LogLG, as the state-of-the-art weakly supervised method, achieves significant performance improvements compared to existing methods.

Anomaly Detection graph construction +1

Human-centric Image Cropping with Partition-aware and Content-preserving Features

1 code implementation21 Jul 2022 Bo Zhang, Li Niu, Xing Zhao, Liqing Zhang

Image cropping aims to find visually appealing crops in an image, which is an important yet challenging task.

Image Cropping

Aspect-specific Context Modeling for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis

1 code implementation17 Jul 2022 Fang Ma, Chen Zhang, Bo Zhang, Dawei Song

Extensive experimental results on standard and adversarial benchmarks for SC and OE demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method, yielding new state-of-the-art performance on OE and competitive performance on SC.

Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA)

Spatial Transformation for Image Composition via Correspondence Learning

no code implementations6 Jul 2022 Bo Zhang, Yue Liu, Kaixin Lu, Li Niu, Liqing Zhang

Instead, we propose a novel correspondence learning network (CorrelNet) to model the correspondence between foreground and background using cross-attention maps, based on which we can predict the target coordinate that each source coordinate of foreground should be mapped to on the background.

Virtual Try-on

Careful seeding for the k-medoids algorithm with incremental k++ cluster construction

no code implementations6 Jul 2022 Difei Cheng, Bo Zhang

An improved k-medoids algorithm (INCKM) was recently proposed to overcome this drawback, based on constructing a candidate medoids subset with a parameter choosing procedure, but it may fail when dealing with imbalanced datasets.

Multi-granularity Item-based Contrastive Recommendation

no code implementations4 Jul 2022 Ruobing Xie, Zhijie Qiu, Bo Zhang, Leyu Lin

Specifically, we build three item-based CL tasks as a set of plug-and-play auxiliary objectives to capture item correlations in feature, semantic and session levels.

Contrastive Learning Recommendation Systems +1

Learning Cross-Image Object Semantic Relation in Transformer for Few-Shot Fine-Grained Image Classification

1 code implementation2 Jul 2022 Bo Zhang, Jiakang Yuan, Baopu Li, Tao Chen, Jiayuan Fan, Botian Shi

Few-shot fine-grained learning aims to classify a query image into one of a set of support categories with fine-grained differences.

Fine-Grained Image Classification

Fast Lossless Neural Compression with Integer-Only Discrete Flows

1 code implementation17 Jun 2022 Siyu Wang, Jianfei Chen, Chongxuan Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

In this work, we propose Integer-only Discrete Flows (IODF), an efficient neural compressor with integer-only arithmetic.


Estimating the Optimal Covariance with Imperfect Mean in Diffusion Probabilistic Models

1 code implementation15 Jun 2022 Fan Bao, Chongxuan Li, Jiacheng Sun, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Thus, the generation performance on a subset of timesteps is crucial, which is greatly influenced by the covariance design in DPMs.

Asymptotic Inference for Infinitely Imbalanced Logistic Regression

no code implementations27 Apr 2022 Dorian Goldman, Bo Zhang

In this paper we extend the work of Owen (2007) by deriving a second order expansion for the slope parameter in logistic regression, when the size of the majority class is unbounded and the minority class is finite.


Adaptable Text Matching via Meta-Weight Regulator

no code implementations27 Apr 2022 Bo Zhang, Chen Zhang, Fang Ma, Dawei Song

Neural text matching models have been used in a range of applications such as question answering and natural language inference, and have yielded a good performance.

Meta-Learning Natural Language Inference +2

Real-Time Neural Character Rendering with Pose-Guided Multiplane Images

1 code implementation25 Apr 2022 Hao Ouyang, Bo Zhang, Pan Zhang, Hao Yang, Jiaolong Yang, Dong Chen, Qifeng Chen, Fang Wen

We propose pose-guided multiplane image (MPI) synthesis which can render an animatable character in real scenes with photorealistic quality.

Image-to-Image Translation Neural Rendering +1

MuCGEC: a Multi-Reference Multi-Source Evaluation Dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction

1 code implementation NAACL 2022 Yue Zhang, Zhenghua Li, Zuyi Bao, Jiacheng Li, Bo Zhang, Chen Li, Fei Huang, Min Zhang

This paper presents MuCGEC, a multi-reference multi-source evaluation dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC), consisting of 7, 063 sentences collected from three Chinese-as-a-Second-Language (CSL) learner sources.

Grammatical Error Correction

Bringing Old Films Back to Life

1 code implementation CVPR 2022 Ziyu Wan, Bo Zhang, Dongdong Chen, Jing Liao

We present a learning-based framework, recurrent transformer network (RTN), to restore heavily degraded old films.

Exploiting Pairwise Mutual Information for Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue

1 code implementation IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 2022 Bo Zhang, Jian Wang, Hongfei Lin, Hui Ma, Bo Xu

Correlation integration is designed to fully exploit the pairwise mutual information among dialogue context, knowledge, and responses, while overall integration adopts an integration gate to capture global information.

Dialogue Generation

Curriculum-style Local-to-global Adaptation for Cross-domain Remote Sensing Image Segmentation

1 code implementation3 Mar 2022 Bo Zhang, Tao Chen, Bin Wang

Although domain adaptation has been extensively studied in natural image-based segmentation task, the research on cross-domain segmentation for very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images (RSIs) still remains underexplored.

Domain Adaptation Image Segmentation +1

Some Reflections on Drawing Causal Inference using Textual Data: Parallels Between Human Subjects and Organized Texts

no code implementations2 Feb 2022 Bo Zhang, Jiayao Zhang

We examine the role of textual data as study units when conducting causal inference by drawing parallels between human subjects and organized texts.

Causal Inference

Analytic-DPM: an Analytic Estimate of the Optimal Reverse Variance in Diffusion Probabilistic Models

2 code implementations ICLR 2022 Fan Bao, Chongxuan Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

In this work, we present a surprising result that both the optimal reverse variance and the corresponding optimal KL divergence of a DPM have analytic forms w. r. t.

TransLog: A Unified Transformer-based Framework for Log Anomaly Detection

no code implementations31 Dec 2021 Hongcheng Guo, Xingyu Lin, Jian Yang, Yi Zhuang, Jiaqi Bai, Tieqiao Zheng, Bo Zhang, Zhoujun Li

Therefore, we propose a unified Transformer-based framework for log anomaly detection (\ourmethod{}), which is comprised of the pretraining and adapter-based tuning stage.

Anomaly Detection

StyleSwin: Transformer-based GAN for High-resolution Image Generation

1 code implementation CVPR 2022 BoWen Zhang, Shuyang Gu, Bo Zhang, Jianmin Bao, Dong Chen, Fang Wen, Yong Wang, Baining Guo

To this end, we believe that local attention is crucial to strike the balance between computational efficiency and modeling capacity.

 Ranked #1 on Image Generation on CelebA 256x256 (FID metric)

Image Generation

Contrastive Cross-domain Recommendation in Matching

1 code implementation2 Dec 2021 Ruobing Xie, Qi Liu, Liangdong Wang, Shukai Liu, Bo Zhang, Leyu Lin

Cross-domain recommendation (CDR) aims to provide better recommendation results in the target domain with the help of the source domain, which is widely used and explored in real-world systems.

Contrastive Learning Representation Learning +1

Vector Quantized Diffusion Model for Text-to-Image Synthesis

2 code implementations CVPR 2022 Shuyang Gu, Dong Chen, Jianmin Bao, Fang Wen, Bo Zhang, Dongdong Chen, Lu Yuan, Baining Guo

Our experiments indicate that the VQ-Diffusion model with the reparameterization is fifteen times faster than traditional AR methods while achieving a better image quality.

 Ranked #1 on Text-to-Image Generation on Oxford 102 Flowers (using extra training data)

Denoising Text-to-Image Generation

Entity Relation Extraction as Dependency Parsing in Visually Rich Documents

no code implementations EMNLP 2021 Yue Zhang, Bo Zhang, Rui Wang, Junjie Cao, Chen Li, Zuyi Bao

Previous works on key information extraction from visually rich documents (VRDs) mainly focus on labeling the text within each bounding box (i. e., semantic entity), while the relations in-between are largely unexplored.

Dependency Parsing Entity Linking +2

Multiplex Behavioral Relation Learning for Recommendation via Memory Augmented Transformer Network

1 code implementation8 Oct 2021 Lianghao Xia, Chao Huang, Yong Xu, Peng Dai, Bo Zhang, Liefeng Bo

The overlook of multiplex behavior relations can hardly recognize the multi-modal contextual signals across different types of interactions, which limit the feasibility of current recommendation methods.

Recommendation Systems

Enhancing the Transferability of Adversarial Attacks via Scale Ensemble

no code implementations29 Sep 2021 Xianfeng Gao, Zhikai Chen, Bo Zhang

The experiments on ImageNet show that our method successfully mitigates the gap of transferability between models with different input sizes and achieves about 8% higher success rate comparing with the state-of-the-art input transformation methods.

Generating Transferable Adversarial Patch by Simultaneously Optimizing its Position and Perturbations

no code implementations29 Sep 2021 Xingxing Wei, Ying Guo, Jie Yu, Huanqian Yan, Bo Zhang

In this paper, we propose a method to simultaneously optimize the position and perturbation to generate transferable adversarial patches, and thus obtain high attack success rates in the black-box setting.

Face Recognition

Fast Density Estimation for Density-based Clustering Methods

no code implementations23 Sep 2021 Difei Cheng, Ruihang Xu, Bo Zhang, Ruinan Jin

Density-based clustering algorithms are widely used for discovering clusters in pattern recognition and machine learning since they can deal with non-hyperspherical clusters and are robustness to handle outliers.

Density Estimation

Joint Distribution Alignment via Adversarial Learning for Domain Adaptive Object Detection

1 code implementation19 Sep 2021 Bo Zhang, Tao Chen, Bin Wang, Ruoyao Li

Unsupervised domain adaptive object detection aims to adapt a well-trained detector from its original source domain with rich labeled data to a new target domain with unlabeled data.

object-detection Object Detection +1

Object-aware Long-short-range Spatial Alignment for Few-Shot Fine-Grained Image Classification

no code implementations30 Aug 2021 Yike Wu, Bo Zhang, Gang Yu, Weixi Zhang, Bin Wang, Tao Chen, Jiayuan Fan

The goal of few-shot fine-grained image classification is to recognize rarely seen fine-grained objects in the query set, given only a few samples of this class in the support set.

Fine-Grained Image Classification Semantic correspondence +2

Densely Semantic Enhancement for Domain Adaptive Region-free Detectors

no code implementations30 Aug 2021 Bo Zhang, Tao Chen, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang, Jiayuan Fan

Unsupervised domain adaptive object detection aims to adapt a well-trained detector from its original source domain with rich labeled data to a new target domain with unlabeled data.

object-detection Object Detection +1

OPA: Object Placement Assessment Dataset

2 code implementations5 Jul 2021 Liu Liu, Zhenchen Liu, Bo Zhang, Jiangtong Li, Li Niu, Qingyang Liu, Liqing Zhang

Image composition aims to generate realistic composite image by inserting an object from one image into another background image, where the placement (e. g., location, size, occlusion) of inserted object may be unreasonable, which would significantly degrade the quality of the composite image.

Understanding Adversarial Attacks on Observations in Deep Reinforcement Learning

no code implementations30 Jun 2021 You Qiaoben, Chengyang Ying, Xinning Zhou, Hang Su, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

In this paper, we provide a framework to better understand the existing methods by reformulating the problem of adversarial attacks on reinforcement learning in the function space.

reinforcement-learning Reinforcement Learning (RL)

Making Images Real Again: A Comprehensive Survey on Deep Image Composition

1 code implementation28 Jun 2021 Li Niu, Wenyan Cong, Liu Liu, Yan Hong, Bo Zhang, Jing Liang, Liqing Zhang

We also point out the limitations of existing methods in each sub-task and the problem of the whole image composition task.

Image Harmonization

Stability and Generalization of Bilevel Programming in Hyperparameter Optimization

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2021 Fan Bao, Guoqiang Wu, Chongxuan Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Our results can explain some mysterious behaviours of the bilevel programming in practice, for instance, overfitting to the validation set.

Hyperparameter Optimization

Robust Mutual Learning for Semi-supervised Semantic Segmentation

no code implementations1 Jun 2021 Pan Zhang, Bo Zhang, Ting Zhang, Dong Chen, Fang Wen

The proposed robust mutual learning demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on semantic segmentation in low-data regime.

Pseudo Label Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation

A Unified Span-Based Approach for Opinion Mining with Syntactic Constituents

1 code implementation NAACL 2021 Qingrong Xia, Bo Zhang, Rui Wang, Zhenghua Li, Yue Zhang, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Min Zhang

Fine-grained opinion mining (OM) has achieved increasing attraction in the natural language processing (NLP) community, which aims to find the opinion structures of {``}Who expressed what opinions towards what{''} in one sentence.

Multi-Task Learning Opinion Mining

Twins: Revisiting the Design of Spatial Attention in Vision Transformers

8 code implementations NeurIPS 2021 Xiangxiang Chu, Zhi Tian, Yuqing Wang, Bo Zhang, Haibing Ren, Xiaolin Wei, Huaxia Xia, Chunhua Shen

Very recently, a variety of vision transformer architectures for dense prediction tasks have been proposed and they show that the design of spatial attention is critical to their success in these tasks.

Image Classification Semantic Segmentation

Microshift: An Efficient Image Compression Algorithm for Hardware

1 code implementation20 Apr 2021 Bo Zhang, Pedro V. Sander, Chi-Ying Tsui, Amine Bermak

In our method, the image is first micro-shifted, then the sub-quantized values are further compressed.

Data Compression Image Compression

Let's See Clearly: Contaminant Artifact Removal for Moving Cameras

no code implementations ICCV 2021 Xiaoyu Li, Bo Zhang, Jing Liao, Pedro V. Sander

This new dataset and our novel framework lead to our method that is able to address different contaminants and outperforms competitive restoration approaches both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Video Restoration

Estimating and Improving Dynamic Treatment Regimes With a Time-Varying Instrumental Variable

no code implementations15 Apr 2021 Shuxiao Chen, Bo Zhang

Estimating dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) from retrospective observational data is challenging as some degree of unmeasured confounding is often expected.

Image Composition Assessment with Saliency-augmented Multi-pattern Pooling

1 code implementation7 Apr 2021 Bo Zhang, Li Niu, Liqing Zhang

Image composition assessment is crucial in aesthetic assessment, which aims to assess the overall composition quality of a given image.

Aesthetics Quality Assessment

MagDR: Mask-guided Detection and Reconstruction for Defending Deepfakes

no code implementations CVPR 2021 Zhikai Chen, Lingxi Xie, Shanmin Pang, Yong He, Bo Zhang

This paper presents MagDR, a mask-guided detection and reconstruction pipeline for defending deepfakes from adversarial attacks.

Extragalactic HI 21-cm absorption line observations with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope

no code implementations11 Mar 2021 Bo Zhang, Ming Zhu, Zhong-Zu Wu, Qing-Zheng Yu, Peng Jiang, You-Ling Yue, Meng-Lin Huang, Qiao-Li Hao

Our observations successfully confirmed the existence of HI absorption lines in all these systems, including two sources that were marginally detected by ALFALFA.

Astrophysics of Galaxies

Style-based Point Generator with Adversarial Rendering for Point Cloud Completion

1 code implementation CVPR 2021 Chulin Xie, Chuxin Wang, Bo Zhang, Hao Yang, Dong Chen, Fang Wen

In this paper, we proposed a novel Style-based Point Generator with Adversarial Rendering (SpareNet) for point cloud completion.

 Ranked #1 on Point Cloud Completion on ShapeNet (Earth Mover's Distance metric)

Point Cloud Completion

A Minimax Probability Machine for Non-Decomposable Performance Measures

no code implementations28 Feb 2021 JunRu Luo, Hong Qiao, Bo Zhang

On the other hand, the minimax probability machine is a popular method for binary classification problems and aims at learning a linear classifier by maximizing the accuracy rate, which makes it unsuitable to deal with imbalanced classification tasks.

Classification General Classification +1

Learning with Smooth Hinge Losses

no code implementations27 Feb 2021 JunRu Luo, Hong Qiao, Bo Zhang

Due to the non-smoothness of the Hinge loss in SVM, it is difficult to obtain a faster convergence rate with modern optimization algorithms.

text-classification Text Classification

OPT-GAN: A Broad-Spectrum Global Optimizer for Black-box Problems by Learning Distribution

1 code implementation7 Feb 2021 Minfang Lu, Shuai Ning, Shuangrong Liu, Fengyang Sun, Bo Zhang, Bo Yang, Lin Wang

Black-box optimization (BBO) algorithms are concerned with finding the best solutions for problems with missing analytical details.

Improving Accuracy and Diversity in Matching of Recommendation with Diversified Preference Network

no code implementations7 Feb 2021 Ruobing Xie, Qi Liu, Shukai Liu, Ziwei Zhang, Peng Cui, Bo Zhang, Leyu Lin

In this paper, we propose a novel Heterogeneous graph neural network framework for diversified recommendation (GraphDR) in matching to improve both recommendation accuracy and diversity.

Graph Attention Recommendation Systems

The Flare and Warp of the Young Stellar Disk traced with LAMOST DR5 OB-type stars

no code implementations1 Feb 2021 Yang Yu, Hai-Feng Wang, Wen-Yuan Cui, Lin-Lin Li, Chao Liu, Bo Zhang, Hao Tian, Zhen-Yan Huo, Jie Ju, Zhi-Cun Liu, Fang Wen, Shuai Feng

We present analysis of the spatial density structure for the outer disk from 8$-$14 \, kpc with the LAMOST DR5 13534 OB-type stars and observe similar flaring on north and south sides of the disk implying that the flaring structure is symmetrical about the Galactic plane, for which the scale height at different Galactocentric distance is from 0. 14 to 0. 5 \, kpc.

Astrophysics of Galaxies

Robust Dynamical Decoupling for the Manipulation of a Spin Network via a Single Spin

no code implementations11 Jan 2021 Xiaodong Yang, Yunrui Ge, Bo Zhang, Jun Li

High-fidelity control of quantum systems is crucial for quantum information processing, but is often limited by perturbations from the environment and imperfections in the applied control fields.

Quantum Physics

Exploring the Galactic Anticenter substructure with LAMOST & Gaia DR2

no code implementations7 Jan 2021 Jing Li, Xiang-Xiang Xue, Chao Liu, Bo Zhang, Hans-Walter Rix, Jeffrey L. Carlin, Chengqun Yang, Rene A. Mendez, Jing Zhong, Hao Tian, Lan Zhang, Yan Xu, Yaqian Wu, Gang Zhao, Ruixiang Chang

Their location in [$\alpha$/M] vs. [M/H] space is more metal poor than typical thin disk stars, with [$\alpha$/M] \textbf{lower} than the thick disk.

Astrophysics of Galaxies

HCGrid: A Convolution-based Gridding Framework for RadioAstronomy in Hybrid Computing Environments

1 code implementation24 Dec 2020 Hao Wang, Ce Yu, Bo Zhang, Jian Xiao, Qi Luo

Gridding operation, which is to map non-uniform data samples onto a uniformly distributedgrid, is one of the key steps in radio astronomical data reduction process.

Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics

A Unified Mixture-View Framework for Unsupervised Representation Learning

no code implementations26 Nov 2020 Xiangxiang Chu, Xiaohang Zhan, Bo Zhang

Recent unsupervised contrastive representation learning follows a Single Instance Multi-view (SIM) paradigm where positive pairs are usually constructed with intra-image data augmentation.

Data Augmentation object-detection +2

Variational (Gradient) Estimate of the Score Function in Energy-based Latent Variable Models

1 code implementation NeurIPS Workshop ICBINB 2020 Fan Bao, Kun Xu, Chongxuan Li, Lanqing Hong, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

The learning and evaluation of energy-based latent variable models (EBLVMs) without any structural assumptions are highly challenging, because the true posteriors and the partition functions in such models are generally intractable.

Bi-level Score Matching for Learning Energy-based Latent Variable Models

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2020 Fan Bao, Chongxuan Li, Kun Xu, Hang Su, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

This paper presents a bi-level score matching (BiSM) method to learn EBLVMs with general structures by reformulating SM as a bi-level optimization problem.

Stochastic Optimization

Old Photo Restoration via Deep Latent Space Translation

7 code implementations14 Sep 2020 Zi-Yu Wan, Bo Zhang, Dong-Dong Chen, Pan Zhang, Dong Chen, Jing Liao, Fang Wen

Unlike conventional restoration tasks that can be solved through supervised learning, the degradation in real photos is complex and the domain gap between synthetic images and real old photos makes the network fail to generalize.

Image Restoration Translation

Deep Sketch-guided Cartoon Video Inbetweening

1 code implementation10 Aug 2020 Xiaoyu Li, Bo Zhang, Jing Liao, Pedro V. Sander

The key idea of the proposed approach is to estimate the dense cross-domain correspondence between the sketch and cartoon video frames, and employ a blending module with occlusion estimation to synthesize the middle frame guided by the sketch.

Image Generation Occlusion Estimation

Training Interpretable Convolutional Neural Networks by Differentiating Class-specific Filters

1 code implementation ECCV 2020 Haoyu Liang, Zhihao Ouyang, Yuyuan Zeng, Hang Su, Zihao He, Shu-Tao Xia, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Most existing works attempt post-hoc interpretation on a pre-trained model, while neglecting to reduce the entanglement underlying the model.

Object Localization

Free-Space Optical Communication Using Non-mode-Selective Photonic Lantern Based Coherent Receiver

no code implementations3 Jul 2020 Bo Zhang, Renzhi Yuan, Jianfeng Sun, Julian Cheng, Mohamed-Slim Alouini

A free-space optical communication system using non-mode-selective photonic lantern (PL) based coherent receiver is studied.

Syntax-Aware Opinion Role Labeling with Dependency Graph Convolutional Networks

no code implementations ACL 2020 Bo Zhang, Yue Zhang, Rui Wang, Zhenghua Li, Min Zhang

The experimental results show that syntactic information is highly valuable for ORL, and our final MTL model effectively boosts the F1 score by 9. 29 over the syntax-agnostic baseline.

Fine-Grained Opinion Analysis Multi-Task Learning

Noisy Differentiable Architecture Search

1 code implementation7 May 2020 Xiangxiang Chu, Bo Zhang

However, it largely suffers from the well-known performance collapse issue due to the aggregation of skip connections.

Image Classification Neural Architecture Search

Bringing Old Photos Back to Life

7 code implementations CVPR 2020 Zi-Yu Wan, Bo Zhang, Dong-Dong Chen, Pan Zhang, Dong Chen, Jing Liao, Fang Wen

Unlike conventional restoration tasks that can be solved through supervised learning, the degradation in real photos is complex and the domain gap between synthetic images and real old photos makes the network fail to generalize.

Image Restoration Translation

Automatic, Dynamic, and Nearly Optimal Learning Rate Specification by Local Quadratic Approximation

1 code implementation7 Apr 2020 Yingqiu Zhu, Yu Chen, Danyang Huang, Bo Zhang, Hansheng Wang

In each update step, given the gradient direction, we locally approximate the loss function by a standard quadratic function of the learning rate.

Sex Differences in Severity and Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19: Evidence from Pooled Literature Analysis and Insights from Integrated Bioinformatic Analysis

no code implementations30 Mar 2020 Xiyi Wei, Yu-Tian Xiao, Jian Wang, Rui Chen, Wei zhang, Yue Yang, Daojun Lv, Chao Qin, Di Gu, Bo Zhang, Weidong Chen, Jianquan Hou, Ninghong Song, Guohua Zeng, Shancheng Ren

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of current studies that examined sex differences in severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19, and identify potential mechanisms underpinning these differences.


Perceptual Image Super-Resolution with Progressive Adversarial Network

no code implementations8 Mar 2020 Lone Wong, Deli Zhao, Shaohua Wan, Bo Zhang

Progressive growing enhances image resolution gradually, thereby preserving precision of recovered image.

Image Super-Resolution

User-Level Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning: Analysis and Performance Optimization

no code implementations29 Feb 2020 Kang Wei, Jun Li, Ming Ding, Chuan Ma, Hang Su, Bo Zhang, H. Vincent Poor

According to our analysis, the UDP framework can realize $(\epsilon_{i}, \delta_{i})$-LDP for the $i$-th MT with adjustable privacy protection levels by varying the variances of the artificial noise processes.

Federated Learning Privacy Preserving

Beyond Clicks: Modeling Multi-Relational Item Graph for Session-Based Target Behavior Prediction

1 code implementation19 Feb 2020 Wen Wang, Wei zhang, Shukai Liu, Qi Liu, Bo Zhang, Leyu Lin, Hongyuan Zha

Specifically, we build a Multi-Relational Item Graph (MRIG) based on all behavior sequences from all sessions, involving target and auxiliary behavior types.

Representation Learning

A Wasserstein Minimum Velocity Approach to Learning Unnormalized Models

1 code implementation pproximateinference AABI Symposium 2019 Ziyu Wang, Shuyu Cheng, Yueru Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Score matching provides an effective approach to learning flexible unnormalized models, but its scalability is limited by the need to evaluate a second-order derivative.

MixPath: A Unified Approach for One-shot Neural Architecture Search

1 code implementation16 Jan 2020 Xiangxiang Chu, Xudong Li, Shun Lu, Bo Zhang, Jixiang Li

Blending multiple convolutional kernels is proved advantageous in neural architectural design.

Neural Architecture Search

Neural Architecture Search on Acoustic Scene Classification

no code implementations30 Dec 2019 Jixiang Li, Chuming Liang, Bo Zhang, Zhao Wang, Fei Xiang, Xiangxiang Chu

Convolutional neural networks are widely adopted in Acoustic Scene Classification (ASC) tasks, but they generally carry a heavy computational burden.

Acoustic Scene Classification Classification +3

Latent Variables on Spheres for Autoencoders in High Dimensions

no code implementations21 Dec 2019 Deli Zhao, Jiapeng Zhu, Bo Zhang

Variational Auto-Encoder (VAE) has been widely applied as a fundamental generative model in machine learning.

Triple Generative Adversarial Networks

1 code implementation20 Dec 2019 Chongxuan Li, Kun Xu, Jiashuo Liu, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

It is formulated as a three-player minimax game consisting of a generator, a classifier and a discriminator, and therefore is referred to as Triple Generative Adversarial Network (Triple-GAN).

Classification Conditional Image Generation +3

Realization of spatial sparseness by deep ReLU nets with massive data

no code implementations16 Dec 2019 Charles K. Chui, Shao-Bo Lin, Bo Zhang, Ding-Xuan Zhou

The great success of deep learning poses urgent challenges for understanding its working mechanism and rationality.

Learning Theory

Automatic quality assessment for 2D fetal sonographic standard plane based on multi-task learning

no code implementations11 Dec 2019 Hong Luo, Han Liu, Kejun Li, Bo Zhang

An essential criterion for FS image quality control is that all the essential anatomical structures in the section should appear full and remarkable with a clear boundary.

Image Quality Assessment Multi-Task Learning +1

Measuring Uncertainty through Bayesian Learning of Deep Neural Network Structure

1 code implementation22 Nov 2019 Zhijie Deng, Yucen Luo, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) augment deep networks with uncertainty quantification by Bayesian treatment of the network weights.

Bayesian Inference Neural Architecture Search +1

Hierarchy Response Learning for Neural Conversation Generation

no code implementations IJCNLP 2019 Bo Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhang

Specifically, a hierarchical response generation (HRG) framework is proposed to capture the conversation intention in a natural and coherent way.

Response Generation

Understanding and Stabilizing GANs' Training Dynamics with Control Theory

1 code implementation29 Sep 2019 Kun Xu, Chongxuan Li, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

There are existing efforts that model the training dynamics of GANs in the parameter space but the analysis cannot directly motivate practically effective stabilizing methods.

Ranked #33 on Image Generation on CIFAR-10 (Inception score metric)

Image Generation L2 Regularization

Pruning from Scratch

1 code implementation27 Sep 2019 Yulong Wang, Xiaolu Zhang, Lingxi Xie, Jun Zhou, Hang Su, Bo Zhang, Xiaolin Hu

Network pruning is an important research field aiming at reducing computational costs of neural networks.

Network Pruning

Deep Bayesian Structure Networks

1 code implementation25 Sep 2019 Zhijie Deng, Yucen Luo, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) introduce uncertainty estimation to deep networks by performing Bayesian inference on network weights.

Bayesian Inference Neural Architecture Search +1

Latent Variables on Spheres for Sampling and Inference

no code implementations25 Sep 2019 Deli Zhao, Jiapeng Zhu, Bo Zhang

Variational inference is a fundamental problem in Variational AutoEncoder (VAE).

Variational Inference

Training Interpretable Convolutional Neural Networks towards Class-specific Filters

no code implementations25 Sep 2019 Haoyu Liang, Zhihao Ouyang, Hang Su, Yuyuan Zeng, Zihao He, Shu-Tao Xia, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have often been treated as “black-box” and successfully used in a range of tasks.

LIA: Latently Invertible Autoencoder with Adversarial Learning

no code implementations25 Sep 2019 Jiapeng Zhu, Deli Zhao, Bolei Zhou, Bo Zhang

A two-stage stochasticity-free training scheme is designed to train LIA via adversarial learning, in the sense that the decoder of LIA is first trained as a standard GAN with the invertible network and then the partial encoder is learned from an autoencoder by detaching the invertible network from LIA.

Variational Inference

Document Rectification and Illumination Correction using a Patch-based CNN

1 code implementation20 Sep 2019 Xiaoyu Li, Bo Zhang, Jing Liao, Pedro V. Sander

We propose a novel learning method to rectify document images with various distortion types from a single input image.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

Blind Geometric Distortion Correction on Images Through Deep Learning

1 code implementation CVPR 2019 Xiaoyu Li, Bo Zhang, Pedro V. Sander, Jing Liao

We propose the first general framework to automatically correct different types of geometric distortion in a single input image.

Deriving the stellar labels of LAMOST spectra with Stellar LAbel Machine (SLAM)

1 code implementation23 Aug 2019 Bo Zhang, Chao Liu, Li-Cai Deng

To illustrate this capability, we test the performance of SLAM on stars ranging from Teff$\sim$4000 to $\sim$8000 K trained on LAMOST spectra and stellar labels.

Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Astrophysics of Galaxies Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics

Multi-Task Deep Learning with Dynamic Programming for Embryo Early Development Stage Classification from Time-Lapse Videos

no code implementations22 Aug 2019 Zihan Liu, Bo Huang, Yuqi Cui, Yifan Xu, Bo Zhang, Lixia Zhu, Yang Wang, Lei Jin, Dongrui Wu

Accurate classification of embryo early development stages can provide embryologists valuable information for assessing the embryo quality, and hence is critical to the success of IVF.

General Classification

MoGA: Searching Beyond MobileNetV3

2 code implementations4 Aug 2019 Xiangxiang Chu, Bo Zhang, Ruijun Xu

Bearing the target hardware in mind, we propose the first Mobile GPU-Aware (MoGA) neural architecture search in order to be precisely tailored for real-world applications.

Image Classification Neural Architecture Search

Curriculum Learning for Deep Generative Models with Clustering

no code implementations27 Jun 2019 Deli Zhao, Jiapeng Zhu, Zhenfang Guo, Bo Zhang

The experiments on cat and human-face data validate that our algorithm is able to learn the optimal generative models (e. g. ProGAN) with respect to specified quality metrics for noisy data.

Disentangled Inference for GANs with Latently Invertible Autoencoder

3 code implementations19 Jun 2019 Jiapeng Zhu, Deli Zhao, Bo Zhang, Bolei Zhou

In this paper, we show that the entanglement of the latent space for the VAE/GAN framework poses the main challenge for encoder learning.

Learning Semantic Vector Representations of Source Code via a Siamese Neural Network

no code implementations26 Apr 2019 David Wehr, Halley Fede, Eleanor Pence, Bo Zhang, Guilherme Ferreira, John Walczyk, Joseph Hughes

The abundance of open-source code, coupled with the success of recent advances in deep learning for natural language processing, has given rise to a promising new application of machine learning to source code.

BIG-bench Machine Learning

Deep Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning Based Recommendations via Multi-goals Abstraction

no code implementations22 Mar 2019 Dongyang Zhao, Liang Zhang, Bo Zhang, Lizhou Zheng, Yongjun Bao, Weipeng Yan

To tackle this challenge, we propose a deep hierarchical reinforcement learning based recommendation framework, which consists of two components, i. e., high-level agent and low-level agent.

Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning Recommendation Systems +2

A Matrix-in-matrix Neural Network for Image Super Resolution

1 code implementation19 Mar 2019 Hailong Ma, Xiangxiang Chu, Shaohua Wan, Bo Zhang

In recent years, deep learning methods have achieved impressive results with higher peak signal-to-noise ratio in single image super-resolution (SISR) tasks by utilizing deeper layers.

Image Super-Resolution

Artificial Intelligence in Intelligent Tutoring Robots: A Systematic Review and Design Guidelines

no code implementations26 Feb 2019 Jinyu Yang, Bo Zhang

We first analyse the environment of the ITR and propose a relationship model for describing interactions of ITR with the students, the social milieu and the curriculum.

Function Space Particle Optimization for Bayesian Neural Networks

1 code implementation ICLR 2019 Ziyu Wang, Tongzheng Ren, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

While Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) have drawn increasing attention, their posterior inference remains challenging, due to the high-dimensional and over-parameterized nature.

Variational Inference

Pairwise Teacher-Student Network for Semi-Supervised Hashing

no code implementations2 Feb 2019 Shifeng Zhang, Jianmin Li, Bo Zhang

Hashing method maps similar high-dimensional data to binary hashcodes with smaller hamming distance, and it has received broad attention due to its low storage cost and fast retrieval speed.


To Relieve Your Headache of Training an MRF, Take AdVIL

no code implementations ICLR 2020 Chongxuan Li, Chao Du, Kun Xu, Max Welling, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

We propose a black-box algorithm called {\it Adversarial Variational Inference and Learning} (AdVIL) to perform inference and learning on a general Markov random field (MRF).

Variational Inference

Multi-Objective Reinforced Evolution in Mobile Neural Architecture Search

1 code implementation4 Jan 2019 Xiangxiang Chu, Bo Zhang, Ruijun Xu, Hailong Ma

In this paper, we present a new multi-objective oriented algorithm called MoreMNAS (Multi-Objective Reinforced Evolution in Mobile Neural Architecture Search) by leveraging good virtues from both EA and RL.

Image Classification Neural Architecture Search +1

The Entropy of Artificial Intelligence and a Case Study of AlphaZero from Shannon's Perspective

no code implementations14 Dec 2018 Bo Zhang, Bin Chen, Jin-lin Peng

Firstly, as there is a finite number of possibilities in the game, is there a quantifiable intelligence measurement for evaluating intelligent systems, e. g. AlphaZero?

DeepExposure: Learning to Expose Photos with Asynchronously Reinforced Adversarial Learning

no code implementations NeurIPS 2018 Runsheng Yu, Wenyu Liu, Yasen Zhang, Zhi Qu, Deli Zhao, Bo Zhang

Based on these sub-images, a local exposure for each sub-image is automatically learned by virtue of policy network sequentially while the reward of learning is globally designed for striking a balance of overall exposures.

An Unified Intelligence-Communication Model for Multi-Agent System Part-I: Overview

no code implementations25 Nov 2018 Bo Zhang, Bin Chen, Jinyu Yang, Wenjing Yang, Jiankang Zhang

Motivated by Shannon's model and recent rehabilitation of self-supervised artificial intelligence having a "World Model", this paper propose an unified intelligence-communication (UIC) model for describing a single agent and any multi-agent system.

Semi-crowdsourced Clustering with Deep Generative Models

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2018 Yucen Luo, Tian Tian, Jiaxin Shi, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

We propose a new approach that includes a deep generative model (DGM) to characterize low-level features of the data, and a statistical relational model for noisy pairwise annotations on its subset.

Variational Inference

Deep Structured Generative Models

no code implementations10 Jul 2018 Kun Xu, Haoyu Liang, Jun Zhu, Hang Su, Bo Zhang

Deep generative models have shown promising results in generating realistic images, but it is still non-trivial to generate images with complicated structures.

Supervised Treebank Conversion: Data and Approaches

no code implementations ACL 2018 Xinzhou Jiang, Zhenghua Li, Bo Zhang, Min Zhang, Sheng Li, Luo Si

Treebank conversion is a straightforward and effective way to exploit various heterogeneous treebanks for boosting parsing performance.

Dependency Parsing Multi-Task Learning

Interlinked Convolutional Neural Networks for Face Parsing

no code implementations7 Jun 2018 Yisu Zhou, Xiaolin Hu, Bo Zhang

It amounts to labeling each pixel with appropriate facial parts such as eyes and nose.

Face Parsing

Interpret Neural Networks by Identifying Critical Data Routing Paths

no code implementations CVPR 2018 Yulong Wang, Hang Su, Bo Zhang, Xiaolin Hu

Interpretability of a deep neural network aims to explain the rationale behind its decisions and enable the users to understand the intelligent agents, which has become an important issue due to its importance in practical applications.

Semantic Cluster Unary Loss for Efficient Deep Hashing

1 code implementation15 May 2018 Shifeng Zhang, Jianmin Li, Bo Zhang

The resultant hashcodes form several compact clusters, which means hashcodes in the same cluster have similar semantic information.

Information Retrieval Retrieval

Adversarial adaptive 1-D convolutional neural networks for bearing fault diagnosis under varying working condition

no code implementations1 May 2018 Bo Zhang, Wei Li, Jie Hao, Xiao-Li Li, Meng Zhang

The layers between the source and target feature extractor are partially untied during the training stage to take both training efficiency and domain adaptation into consideration.

Domain Adaptation

Graphical Generative Adversarial Networks

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2018 Chongxuan Li, Max Welling, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang

We propose Graphical Generative Adversarial Networks (Graphical-GAN) to model structured data.

Message Passing Stein Variational Gradient Descent

no code implementations ICML 2018 Jingwei Zhuo, Chang Liu, Jiaxin Shi, Jun Zhu, Ning Chen, Bo Zhang

Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD) is a recently proposed particle-based Bayesian inference method, which has attracted a lot of interest due to its remarkable approximation ability and particle efficiency compared to traditional variational inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

Bayesian Inference Variational Inference

Smooth Neighbors on Teacher Graphs for Semi-supervised Learning

1 code implementation CVPR 2018 Yucen Luo, Jun Zhu, Mengxi Li, Yong Ren, Bo Zhang

In SNTG, a graph is constructed based on the predictions of the teacher model, i. e., the implicit self-ensemble of models.

Fast Deep Matting for Portrait Animation on Mobile Phone

1 code implementation26 Jul 2017 Bingke Zhu, Yingying Chen, Jinqiao Wang, Si Liu, Bo Zhang, Ming Tang

Finally, an automatic portrait animation system based on fast deep matting is built on mobile devices, which does not need any interaction and can realize real-time matting with 15 fps.

Image Matting Video Editing

PBODL : Parallel Bayesian Online Deep Learning for Click-Through Rate Prediction in Tencent Advertising System

no code implementations4 Jul 2017 Xun Liu, Wei Xue, Lei Xiao, Bo Zhang

Then we extend the model family to a variety of bayesian online models with increasing feature embedding capabilities, such as Sparse-MLP, FM-MLP and FFM-MLP.

Click-Through Rate Prediction

SAM: Semantic Attribute Modulation for Language Modeling and Style Variation

no code implementations1 Jul 2017 Wenbo Hu, Lifeng Hua, Lei LI, Hang Su, Tian Wang, Ning Chen, Bo Zhang

This paper presents a Semantic Attribute Modulation (SAM) for language modeling and style variation.

Language Modelling