In this work, we tackle the problem of Semi-Supervised Anomaly Segmentation (SAS) in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain, which is the task of automatically identifying pathologies in brain images.
Results show a prediction accuracy of 94. 4% for sex classification (an increase of 6. 2% compared to other methods), and an improvement of correlation with fluid intelligence of 0. 325 vs 0. 144, relative to a baseline model that encodes space and time separately.
Traditional cortical surface reconstruction is time consuming and limited by the resolution of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
In order to do so, we assume that voxels that are not useful for the regression are resilient to noise addition.
The success of neural networks on medical image segmentation tasks typically relies on large labeled datasets for model training.
The application of differential privacy to the training of deep neural networks holds the promise of allowing large-scale (decentralized) use of sensitive data while providing rigorous privacy guarantees to the individual.
no code implementations • 19 Jul 2021 • Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Stefan Winzeck, Evgenios N. Kornaropoulos, Daniel Whitehouse, Cameron Englman, Poe Phyu, Norman Pao, David K. Menon, Daniel Rueckert, Tilak Das, Virginia F. J. Newcombe, Ben Glocker
It focuses on the quality of predictions made on the unlabeled data of interest when they are included for optimization during training, rather than improving generalization.
Optimising the analysis of cardiac structure and function requires accurate 3D representations of shape and motion.
Reconciling large-scale ML with the closed-form reasoning required for the principled analysis of individual privacy loss requires the introduction of new tools for automatic sensitivity analysis and for tracking an individual's data and their features through the flow of computation.
We show that differentially private stochastic gradient descent (DP-SGD) can yield poorly calibrated, overconfident deep learning models.
In cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, a 3D high-resolution segmentation of the heart is essential for detailed description of its anatomical structures.
The application of PTs to FL in medical imaging and the trade-offs between privacy guarantees and model utility, the ramifications on training performance and the susceptibility of the final models to attacks have not yet been conclusively investigated.
We propose an alternative to image reconstruction-based and image embedding-based methods and propose a new self-supervised method to tackle pathological anomaly detection.
no code implementations • 6 Jul 2021 • Samuel Budd, Matthew Sinclair, Thomas Day, Athanasios Vlontzos, Jeremy Tan, Tianrui Liu, Jaqueline Matthew, Emily Skelton, John Simpson, Reza Razavi, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert, Emma C. Robinson, Bernhard Kainz
Fetal ultrasound screening during pregnancy plays a vital role in the early detection of fetal malformations which have potential long-term health impacts.
In this paper, we present a cooperative framework for training image segmentation models and a latent space augmentation method for generating hard examples.
Intelligent video summarization algorithms allow to quickly convey the most relevant information in videos through the identification of the most essential and explanatory content while removing redundant video frames.
no code implementations • 25 May 2021 • Xi Jia, Alexander Thorley, Wei Chen, Huaqi Qiu, Linlin Shen, Iain B Styles, Hyung Jin Chang, Ales Leonardis, Antonio de Marvao, Declan P. O'Regan, Daniel Rueckert, Jinming Duan
We then propose two neural layers (i. e. warping layer and intensity consistency layer) to model the analytical solution and a residual U-Net to formulate the denoising problem (i. e. generalized denoising layer).
Gathering manually annotated images for the purpose of training a predictive model is far more challenging in the medical domain than for natural images as it requires the expertise of qualified radiologists.
Federated learning (FL) enables multiple clients to jointly train a global model under the coordination of a central server.
Further, we illustrate that FedDis learns a shape embedding that is orthogonal to the appearance and consistent under different intensity augmentations.
A potential approach to tackling this is Federated Learning (FL), which enables multiple parties to collaboratively learn a shared prediction model by using parameters of locally trained models while keeping raw training data locally.
The iterative model is embedded into a deep recurrent neural network which learns to recover the image via exploiting spatio-temporal redundancies in complementary domains.
no code implementations • 10 Dec 2020 • Alexander Ziller, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Théo Ryffel, Dmitrii Usynin, Andrew Trask, Ionésio Da Lima Costa Junior, Jason Mancuso, Marcus Makowski, Daniel Rueckert, Rickmer Braren, Georgios Kaissis
The utilisation of artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare has led to successful clinical applications in several domains.
In this thorough empirical study, we draw inspiration from findings on natural images and investigate ways in which addressing the textural bias phenomenon could bring up the robustness of deep segmentation models when applied to three-dimensional (3D) medical data.
While the initial model might belong solely to the actor bringing it to the network for training, determining the ownership of the trained model resulting from Federated Learning remains an open question.
This work provides a comprehensive review of existing frameworks based on secure computing techniques in the context of private image classification.
To address this problem, we propose Mutual Information-based Disentangled Neural Networks (MIDNet), which extract generalizable categorical features to transfer knowledge to unseen categories in a target domain.
no code implementations • 28 Sep 2020 • Osama N. Hassan, Serhat Sahin, Vahid Mohammadzadeh, Xiaohe Yang, Navid Amini, Apoorva Mylavarapu, Jack Martinyan, Tae Hong, Golnoush Mahmoudinezhad, Daniel Rueckert, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, Fabien Scalzo
The patient's OCT scan is predicted from three or two prior measurements.
In this work, we implement and evaluate different robust aggregation methods in FL applied to healthcare data.
Cryptography and Security
For artificial intelligence-based image analysis methods to reach clinical applicability, the development of high-performance algorithms is crucial.
Many studies have been proposed for the prediction of chronological age from brain MRI using machine learning and specifically deep learning techniques.
In this paper we propose a novel theoretical framework to perform causal future prediction by embedding spatiotemporal information on a Minkowski space-time.
The proposed MetFA method explicitly and directly learns the latent representation without using domain adversarial training.
Accurate detection of anatomical landmarks is an essential step in several medical imaging tasks.
In this paper we discuss the potential for deep learning techniques to aid in the detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in fetal ultrasound.
1 code implementation • 13 Aug 2020 • Vitalis Vosylius, Andy Wang, Cemlyn Waters, Alexey Zakharov, Francis Ward, Loic Le Folgoc, John Cupitt, Antonios Makropoulos, Andreas Schuh, Daniel Rueckert, Amir Alansary
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to predict the post-menstrual age (PA) at scan, using techniques from geometric deep learning, based on the neonatal white matter cortical surface.
In this survey paper, we first present traits of medical imaging, highlight both clinical needs and technical challenges in medical imaging, and describe how emerging trends in deep learning are addressing these issues.
Few-shot semantic segmentation (FSS) has great potential for medical imaging applications.
We present a deep network interpolation strategy for accelerated parallel MR image reconstruction.
no code implementations • 24 Jun 2020 • Esther Puyol-Antón, Chen Chen, James R. Clough, Bram Ruijsink, Baldeep S. Sidhu, Justin Gould, Bradley Porter, Mark Elliott, Vishal Mehta, Daniel Rueckert, Christopher A. Rinaldi, Andrew P. King
Our key contribution is that the VAE disentangles the latent space based on `explanations' drawn from existing clinical knowledge.
In this work, we propose an adversarial data augmentation method for training neural networks for medical image segmentation.
Our approach provides a real-time and model-agnostic quality control for cardiac MRI segmentation, which has the potential to be integrated into clinical image analysis workflows.
X-Ray imaging is quick, cheap and useful for front-line care assessment and intra-operative real-time imaging (e. g., C-Arm Fluoroscopy).
no code implementations • 22 Jun 2020 • Xiahai Zhuang, Jiahang Xu, Xinzhe Luo, Chen Chen, Cheng Ouyang, Daniel Rueckert, Victor M. Campello, Karim Lekadir, Sulaiman Vesal, Nishant Ravikumar, Yashu Liu, Gongning Luo, Jingkun Chen, Hongwei Li, Buntheng Ly, Maxime Sermesant, Holger Roth, Wentao Zhu, Jiexiang Wang, Xinghao Ding, Xinyue Wang, Sen yang, Lei LI
In addition, the paired MS-CMR images could enable algorithms to combine the complementary information from the other sequences for the segmentation of LGE CMR.
The learnt VAE regulariser then can be coupled with any deep learning based registration network to regularise the solution space to be biomechanically plausible.
We show that our method is superior to alternative video summarization methods and that it preserves essential information required by clinical diagnostic standards.
This paper proposes a fully automated atlas-based pancreas segmentation method from CT volumes utilizing atlas localization by regression forest and atlas generation using blood vessel information.
no code implementations • 26 Apr 2020 • Zhaohan Xiong, Qing Xia, Zhiqiang Hu, Ning Huang, Cheng Bian, Yefeng Zheng, Sulaiman Vesal, Nishant Ravikumar, Andreas Maier, Xin Yang, Pheng-Ann Heng, Dong Ni, Caizi Li, Qianqian Tong, Weixin Si, Elodie Puybareau, Younes Khoudli, Thierry Geraud, Chen Chen, Wenjia Bai, Daniel Rueckert, Lingchao Xu, Xiahai Zhuang, Xinzhe Luo, Shuman Jia, Maxime Sermesant, Yashu Liu, Kuanquan Wang, Davide Borra, Alessandro Masci, Cristiana Corsi, Coen de Vente, Mitko Veta, Rashed Karim, Chandrakanth Jayachandran Preetha, Sandy Engelhardt, Menyun Qiao, Yuanyuan Wang, Qian Tao, Marta Nunez-Garcia, Oscar Camara, Nicolo Savioli, Pablo Lamata, Jichao Zhao
Segmentation of cardiac images, particularly late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) widely used for visualizing diseased cardiac structures, is a crucial first step for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Deep learning models exhibit limited generalizability across different domains.
Purpose: To systematically investigate the influence of various data consistency layers, (semi-)supervised learning and ensembling strategies, defined in a $\Sigma$-net, for accelerated parallel MR image reconstruction using deep learning.
Deep learning has become the most widely used approach for cardiac image segmentation in recent years.
In this work, a novel approach is proposed for joint analysis of high dimensional time-resolved cardiac motion features obtained from segmented cardiac MRI and low dimensional clinical risk factors to improve survival prediction in heart failure.
We show that the proposed approaches are competitive relative to the state of the art both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Our approach has three key features: 1) The generated adversarial examples exhibit anatomical variations (in form of deformations) as well as appearance perturbations; 2) The adversarial examples attack segmentation models so that the Dice scores decrease by a pre-specified amount; 3) The attack is not required to be specified beforehand.
AUTOMAP is a promising generalized reconstruction approach, however, it is not scalable and hence the practicality is limited.
With the availability of large amounts of imaging data and machine learning (in particular deep learning) techniques, data-driven approaches have become more widespread for use in different tasks in reconstruction, analysis and interpretation.
Real-world settings often do not allow acquisition of high-resolution volumetric images for accurate morphological assessment and diagnostic.
These entangled image properties lead to a semantically redundant feature encoding for the relevant task and thus lead to poor generalization of deep learning algorithms.
In this work, we present a fully automatic method to segment cardiac structures from late-gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images without using labelled LGE data for training, but instead by transferring the anatomical knowledge and features learned on annotated balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) images, which are easier to acquire.
Accelerating the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a challenging problem, and many works have been proposed to reconstruct images from undersampled k-space data.
Maintaining good cardiac function for as long as possible is a major concern for healthcare systems worldwide and there is much interest in learning more about the impact of different risk factors on cardiac health.
Cardiac MR image segmentation is essential for the morphological and functional analysis of the heart.
Experiments conducted on highly undersampled short-axis cardiac cine MRI scans demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art dynamic MR reconstruction approaches both quantitatively and qualitatively.
In this work, we propose a deep learning approach for parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction, termed a variable splitting network (VS-Net), for an efficient, high-quality reconstruction of undersampled multi-coil MR data.
Deep unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) aims to improve the performance of a deep neural network model on a target domain, using solely unlabelled target domain data and labelled source domain data.
In the recent years, convolutional neural networks have transformed the field of medical image analysis due to their capacity to learn discriminative image features for a variety of classification and regression tasks.
1 code implementation • 2 Jul 2019 • Chen Chen, Wenjia Bai, Rhodri H. Davies, Anish N. Bhuva, Charlotte Manisty, James C. Moon, Nay Aung, Aaron M. Lee, Mihir M. Sanghvi, Kenneth Fung, Jose Miguel Paiva, Steffen E. Petersen, Elena Lukaschuk, Stefan K. Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Daniel Rueckert
We demonstrate that a neural network trained on a single-site single-scanner dataset from the UK Biobank can be successfully applied to segmenting cardiac MR images across different sites and different scanners without substantial loss of accuracy.
We compare our approach with state-of-the-art architectures and achieve significantly better accuracy by reducing the detection error by 50%, while requiring fewer computational resources and time to train compared to the naive approach of training K agents separately.
1 code implementation • 28 Jun 2019 • Carlo Biffi, Juan J. Cerrolaza, Giacomo Tarroni, Wenjia Bai, Antonio de Marvao, Ozan Oktay, Christian Ledig, Loic Le Folgoc, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Georgia Doumou, Jinming Duan, Sanjay K. Prasad, Stuart A. Cook, Declan P. O'Regan, Daniel Rueckert
At the highest level of this hierarchy, a two-dimensional latent space is simultaneously optimised to discriminate distinct clinical conditions, enabling the direct visualisation of the classification space.
In this paper, we propose a method to automatically detect and correct motion-related artefacts in CMR acquisitions during reconstruction from k-space data.
We introduce a novel personalized Gaussian Process Experts (pGPE) model for predicting per-subject ADAS-Cog13 cognitive scores -- a significant predictor of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in the cognitive domain -- over the future 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.
The proposed registration approach is then built on the factorized latent shape code, with the assumption that the intrinsic shape deformation existing in original image domain is preserved in this latent space.
Accurate segmentation of heart structures imaged by cardiac MR is key for the quantitative analysis of pathology.
We look into robustness of deep learning based MRI reconstruction when tested on unseen contrasts and organs.
no code implementations • 27 Jan 2019 • Robert Robinson, Vanya V. Valindria, Wenjia Bai, Ozan Oktay, Bernhard Kainz, Hideaki Suzuki, Mihir M. Sanghvi, Nay Aung, Jos$é$ Miguel Paiva, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Elena Lukaschuk, Aaron M. Lee, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Stefan K. Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E. Petersen, Chris Page, Paul M. Matthews, Daniel Rueckert, Ben Glocker
Methods: To overcome this challenge, we explore an approach for predicting segmentation quality based on Reverse Classification Accuracy, which enables us to discriminate between successful and failed segmentations on a per-cases basis.
With more than 300 papers included in this review, we reflect on the trends and challenges of the field of computational anatomy, the particularities of each anatomical region, and the potential of multi-organ analysis to increase the impact of 35 medical imaging applications on the future of healthcare.
We also show how a shift in domain of the training data from young and healthy towards older and more pathological examples leads to better segmentations of the latter cases, and that this leads to a significant improvement in the ability for the computed segmentations to stratify cases of AD.
no code implementations • 20 Nov 2018 • Qingjie Meng, Matthew Sinclair, Veronika Zimmer, Benjamin Hou, Martin Rajchl, Nicolas Toussaint, Ozan Oktay, Jo Schlemper, Alberto Gomez, James Housden, Jacqueline Matthew, Daniel Rueckert, Julia Schnabel, Bernhard Kainz
Our method is more consistent than human annotation, and outperforms the state-of-the-art quantitatively in shadow segmentation and qualitatively in confidence estimation of shadow regions.
We detail a new framework for privacy preserving deep learning and discuss its assets.
1 code implementation • 5 Nov 2018 • Spyridon Bakas, Mauricio Reyes, Andras Jakab, Stefan Bauer, Markus Rempfler, Alessandro Crimi, Russell Takeshi Shinohara, Christoph Berger, Sung Min Ha, Martin Rozycki, Marcel Prastawa, Esther Alberts, Jana Lipkova, John Freymann, Justin Kirby, Michel Bilello, Hassan Fathallah-Shaykh, Roland Wiest, Jan Kirschke, Benedikt Wiestler, Rivka Colen, Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Pamela Lamontagne, Daniel Marcus, Mikhail Milchenko, Arash Nazeri, Marc-Andre Weber, Abhishek Mahajan, Ujjwal Baid, Elizabeth Gerstner, Dongjin Kwon, Gagan Acharya, Manu Agarwal, Mahbubul Alam, Alberto Albiol, Antonio Albiol, Francisco J. Albiol, Varghese Alex, Nigel Allinson, Pedro H. A. Amorim, Abhijit Amrutkar, Ganesh Anand, Simon Andermatt, Tal Arbel, Pablo Arbelaez, Aaron Avery, Muneeza Azmat, Pranjal B., W Bai, Subhashis Banerjee, Bill Barth, Thomas Batchelder, Kayhan Batmanghelich, Enzo Battistella, Andrew Beers, Mikhail Belyaev, Martin Bendszus, Eze Benson, Jose Bernal, Halandur Nagaraja Bharath, George Biros, Sotirios Bisdas, James Brown, Mariano Cabezas, Shilei Cao, Jorge M. Cardoso, Eric N Carver, Adrià Casamitjana, Laura Silvana Castillo, Marcel Catà, Philippe Cattin, Albert Cerigues, Vinicius S. Chagas, Siddhartha Chandra, Yi-Ju Chang, Shiyu Chang, Ken Chang, Joseph Chazalon, Shengcong Chen, Wei Chen, Jefferson W. Chen, Zhaolin Chen, Kun Cheng, Ahana Roy Choudhury, Roger Chylla, Albert Clérigues, Steven Colleman, Ramiro German Rodriguez Colmeiro, Marc Combalia, Anthony Costa, Xiaomeng Cui, Zhenzhen Dai, Lutao Dai, Laura Alexandra Daza, Eric Deutsch, Changxing Ding, Chao Dong, Shidu Dong, Wojciech Dudzik, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Gary Egan, Guilherme Escudero, Théo Estienne, Richard Everson, Jonathan Fabrizio, Yong Fan, Longwei Fang, Xue Feng, Enzo Ferrante, Lucas Fidon, Martin Fischer, Andrew P. French, Naomi Fridman, Huan Fu, David Fuentes, Yaozong Gao, Evan Gates, David Gering, Amir Gholami, Willi Gierke, Ben Glocker, Mingming Gong, Sandra González-Villá, T. Grosges, Yuanfang Guan, Sheng Guo, Sudeep Gupta, Woo-Sup Han, Il Song Han, Konstantin Harmuth, Huiguang He, Aura Hernández-Sabaté, Evelyn Herrmann, Naveen Himthani, Winston Hsu, Cheyu Hsu, Xiaojun Hu, Xiaobin Hu, Yan Hu, Yifan Hu, Rui Hua, Teng-Yi Huang, Weilin Huang, Sabine Van Huffel, Quan Huo, Vivek HV, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Fabian Isensee, Mobarakol Islam, Aaron S. Jackson, Sachin R. Jambawalikar, Andrew Jesson, Weijian Jian, Peter Jin, V Jeya Maria Jose, Alain Jungo, B Kainz, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Po-Yu Kao, Ayush Karnawat, Thomas Kellermeier, Adel Kermi, Kurt Keutzer, Mohamed Tarek Khadir, Mahendra Khened, Philipp Kickingereder, Geena Kim, Nik King, Haley Knapp, Urspeter Knecht, Lisa Kohli, Deren Kong, Xiangmao Kong, Simon Koppers, Avinash Kori, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi, Egor Krivov, Piyush Kumar, Kaisar Kushibar, Dmitrii Lachinov, Tryphon Lambrou, Joon Lee, Chengen Lee, Yuehchou Lee, M Lee, Szidonia Lefkovits, Laszlo Lefkovits, James Levitt, Tengfei Li, Hongwei Li, Hongyang Li, Xiaochuan Li, Yuexiang Li, Heng Li, Zhenye Li, Xiaoyu Li, Zeju Li, Xiaogang Li, Wenqi Li, Zheng-Shen Lin, Fengming Lin, Pietro Lio, Chang Liu, Boqiang Liu, Xiang Liu, Mingyuan Liu, Ju Liu, Luyan Liu, Xavier Llado, Marc Moreno Lopez, Pablo Ribalta Lorenzo, Zhentai Lu, Lin Luo, Zhigang Luo, Jun Ma, Kai Ma, Thomas Mackie, Anant Madabushi, Issam Mahmoudi, Klaus H. Maier-Hein, Pradipta Maji, CP Mammen, Andreas Mang, B. S. Manjunath, Michal Marcinkiewicz, S McDonagh, Stephen McKenna, Richard McKinley, Miriam Mehl, Sachin Mehta, Raghav Mehta, Raphael Meier, Christoph Meinel, Dorit Merhof, Craig Meyer, Robert Miller, Sushmita Mitra, Aliasgar Moiyadi, David Molina-Garcia, Miguel A. B. Monteiro, Grzegorz Mrukwa, Andriy Myronenko, Jakub Nalepa, Thuyen Ngo, Dong Nie, Holly Ning, Chen Niu, Nicholas K Nuechterlein, Eric Oermann, Arlindo Oliveira, Diego D. C. Oliveira, Arnau Oliver, Alexander F. I. Osman, Yu-Nian Ou, Sebastien Ourselin, Nikos Paragios, Moo Sung Park, Brad Paschke, J. Gregory Pauloski, Kamlesh Pawar, Nick Pawlowski, Linmin Pei, Suting Peng, Silvio M. Pereira, Julian Perez-Beteta, Victor M. Perez-Garcia, Simon Pezold, Bao Pham, Ashish Phophalia, Gemma Piella, G. N. Pillai, Marie Piraud, Maxim Pisov, Anmol Popli, Michael P. Pound, Reza Pourreza, Prateek Prasanna, Vesna Prkovska, Tony P. Pridmore, Santi Puch, Élodie Puybareau, Buyue Qian, Xu Qiao, Martin Rajchl, Swapnil Rane, Michael Rebsamen, Hongliang Ren, Xuhua Ren, Karthik Revanuru, Mina Rezaei, Oliver Rippel, Luis Carlos Rivera, Charlotte Robert, Bruce Rosen, Daniel Rueckert, Mohammed Safwan, Mostafa Salem, Joaquim Salvi, Irina Sanchez, Irina Sánchez, Heitor M. Santos, Emmett Sartor, Dawid Schellingerhout, Klaudius Scheufele, Matthew R. Scott, Artur A. Scussel, Sara Sedlar, Juan Pablo Serrano-Rubio, N. Jon Shah, Nameetha Shah, Mazhar Shaikh, B. Uma Shankar, Zeina Shboul, Haipeng Shen, Dinggang Shen, Linlin Shen, Haocheng Shen, Varun Shenoy, Feng Shi, Hyung Eun Shin, Hai Shu, Diana Sima, M Sinclair, Orjan Smedby, James M. Snyder, Mohammadreza Soltaninejad, Guidong Song, Mehul Soni, Jean Stawiaski, Shashank Subramanian, Li Sun, Roger Sun, Jiawei Sun, Kay Sun, Yu Sun, Guoxia Sun, Shuang Sun, Yannick R Suter, Laszlo Szilagyi, Sanjay Talbar, DaCheng Tao, Zhongzhao Teng, Siddhesh Thakur, Meenakshi H Thakur, Sameer Tharakan, Pallavi Tiwari, Guillaume Tochon, Tuan Tran, Yuhsiang M. Tsai, Kuan-Lun Tseng, Tran Anh Tuan, Vadim Turlapov, Nicholas Tustison, Maria Vakalopoulou, Sergi Valverde, Rami Vanguri, Evgeny Vasiliev, Jonathan Ventura, Luis Vera, Tom Vercauteren, C. A. Verrastro, Lasitha Vidyaratne, Veronica Vilaplana, Ajeet Vivekanandan, Qian Wang, Chiatse J. Wang, Wei-Chung Wang, Duo Wang, Ruixuan Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Chunliang Wang, Guotai Wang, Ning Wen, Xin Wen, Leon Weninger, Wolfgang Wick, Shaocheng Wu, Qiang Wu, Yihong Wu, Yong Xia, Yanwu Xu, Xiaowen Xu, Peiyuan Xu, Tsai-Ling Yang, Xiaoping Yang, Hao-Yu Yang, Junlin Yang, Haojin Yang, Guang Yang, Hongdou Yao, Xujiong Ye, Changchang Yin, Brett Young-Moxon, Jinhua Yu, Xiangyu Yue, Songtao Zhang, Angela Zhang, Kun Zhang, Xue-jie Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Xiaoyue Zhang, Yazhuo Zhang, Lei Zhang, Jian-Guo Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Tianhao Zhang, Sicheng Zhao, Yu Zhao, Xiaomei Zhao, Liang Zhao, Yefeng Zheng, Liming Zhong, Chenhong Zhou, Xiaobing Zhou, Fan Zhou, Hongtu Zhu, Jin Zhu, Ying Zhuge, Weiwei Zong, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Keyvan Farahani, Christos Davatzikos, Koen van Leemput, Bjoern Menze
This study assesses the state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i. e., 2012-2018.
Segmentation of the left atrium (LA) is crucial for assessing its anatomy in both pre-operative atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation planning and post-operative follow-up studies.
no code implementations • 29 Oct 2018 • Ilkay Oksuz, Bram Ruijsink, Esther Puyol-Anton, James Clough, Gastao Cruz, Aurelien Bustin, Claudia Prieto, Rene Botnar, Daniel Rueckert, Julia A. Schnabel, Andrew P. King
Due to the high number of good quality images compared to the relatively low number of images with motion artefacts, we propose a novel data augmentation scheme based on synthetic artefact creation in k-space.
no code implementations • 25 Oct 2018 • Christopher Bowles, Liang Chen, Ricardo Guerrero, Paul Bentley, Roger Gunn, Alexander Hammers, David Alexander Dickie, Maria Valdés Hernández, Joanna Wardlaw, Daniel Rueckert
One of the biggest issues facing the use of machine learning in medical imaging is the lack of availability of large, labelled datasets.
1 code implementation • 8 Oct 2018 • Ghalib A. Bello, Timothy J. W. Dawes, Jinming Duan, Carlo Biffi, Antonio de Marvao, Luke S. G. E. Howard, J. Simon R. Gibbs, Martin R. Wilkins, Stuart A. Cook, Daniel Rueckert, Declan P. O'Regan
Motion analysis is used in computer vision to understand the behaviour of moving objects in sequences of images.
If long axis (LA) images are available, PSMs are generated for them and combined to create the target PSM; if not, the target PSM is produced from the same stack using a 3D model trained from motion-free stacks.
The proposed pipeline is fully automated, due to network's ability to infer landmarks, which are then used downstream in the pipeline to initialise atlas propagation.
AGs can be easily integrated into standard CNN models such as VGG or U-Net architectures with minimal computational overhead while increasing the model sensitivity and prediction accuracy.
As this is a highly imbalanced classification problem (due to the high number of good quality images compared to the low number of images with motion artefacts), we propose a novel k-space based training data augmentation approach in order to address this problem.
In this work, we propose an image sequence segmentation algorithm by combining a fully convolutional network with a recurrent neural network, which incorporates both spatial and temporal information into the segmentation task.
Our experiments show that the proposed approach can boost the segmentation accuracy of multiple small organs in whole-body MRI scans.
In this paper we introduce a novel and accurate optimisation method for segmentation of cardiac MR (CMR) images in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).
1 code implementation • 18 Jul 2018 • Carlo Biffi, Ozan Oktay, Giacomo Tarroni, Wenjia Bai, Antonio de Marvao, Georgia Doumou, Martin Rajchl, Reem Bedair, Sanjay Prasad, Stuart Cook, Declan O'Regan, Daniel Rueckert
However, current approaches to the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases often rely on subjective human assessment as well as manual analysis of medical images.
1 code implementation • 28 Jun 2018 • Maximilian Seitzer, Guang Yang, Jo Schlemper, Ozan Oktay, Tobias Würfl, Vincent Christlein, Tom Wong, Raad Mohiaddin, David Firmin, Jennifer Keegan, Daniel Rueckert, Andreas Maier
In addition, we introduce a semantic interpretability score, measuring the visibility of the region of interest in both ground truth and reconstructed images, which allows us to objectively quantify the usefulness of the image quality for image post-processing and analysis.
1 code implementation • 19 Jun 2018 • Yuanwei Li, Bishesh Khanal, Benjamin Hou, Amir Alansary, Juan J. Cerrolaza, Matthew Sinclair, Jacqueline Matthew, Chandni Gupta, Caroline Knight, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
We propose a new Iterative Transformation Network (ITN) for the automatic detection of standard planes in 3D volumes.
1 code implementation • 18 Jun 2018 • Yuanwei Li, Amir Alansary, Juan J. Cerrolaza, Bishesh Khanal, Matthew Sinclair, Jacqueline Matthew, Chandni Gupta, Caroline Knight, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
PIN is computationally efficient since the inference stage only selectively samples a small number of patches in an iterative fashion rather than a dense sampling at every location in the volume.
no code implementations • 16 Jun 2018 • Robert Robinson, Ozan Oktay, Wenjia Bai, Vanya Valindria, Mihir Sanghvi, Nay Aung, José Paiva, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Elena Lukaschuk, Aaron Lee, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Bernhard Kainz, Stefan Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen Petersen, Chris Page, Daniel Rueckert, Ben Glocker
Recent advances in deep learning based image segmentation methods have enabled real-time performance with human-level accuracy.
Cardiac motion estimation and segmentation play important roles in quantitatively assessing cardiac function and diagnosing cardiovascular diseases.
NeuroNet is a deep convolutional neural network mimicking multiple popular and state-of-the-art brain segmentation tools including FSL, SPM, and MALPEM.
no code implementations • 8 Jun 2018 • Amir Alansary, Loic Le Folgoc, Ghislain Vaillant, Ozan Oktay, Yuanwei Li, Wenjia Bai, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Ricardo Guerrero, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Benjamin Hou, Steven McDonagh, Ben Glocker, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
Navigating through target anatomy to find the required view plane is tedious and operator-dependent.
We estimate the position and the size of the pancreas (localized) from global features by regression forests.
We present a novel cost function for semi-supervised learning of neural networks that encourages compact clustering of the latent space to facilitate separation.
Graphs are widely used as a natural framework that captures interactions between individual elements represented as nodes in a graph.
Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) allow to apply traditional convolution operations in non-Euclidean domains, where data are commonly modelled as irregular graphs.
The variations in multi-center data in medical imaging studies have brought the necessity of domain adaptation.
no code implementations • 30 May 2018 • Jo Schlemper, Guang Yang, Pedro Ferreira, Andrew Scott, Laura-Ann McGill, Zohya Khalique, Margarita Gorodezky, Malte Roehl, Jennifer Keegan, Dudley Pennell, David Firmin, Daniel Rueckert
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using deep CNN based CS for the DT-CMR reconstruction.
In this paper, we propose a general Riemannian formulation of the pose estimation problem.
no code implementations • 24 Apr 2018 • Matthew Sinclair, Christian F. Baumgartner, Jacqueline Matthew, Wenjia Bai, Juan Cerrolaza Martinez, Yuanwei Li, Sandra Smith, Caroline L. Knight, Bernhard Kainz, Jo Hajnal, Andrew P. King, Daniel Rueckert
Measurement of head biometrics from fetal ultrasonography images is of key importance in monitoring the healthy development of fetuses.
We show that, when the base network has a high capacity, the incorporated attention mechanism can provide efficient object localisation while improving the overall performance.
23 code implementations • 11 Apr 2018 • Ozan Oktay, Jo Schlemper, Loic Le Folgoc, Matthew Lee, Mattias Heinrich, Kazunari Misawa, Kensaku Mori, Steven McDonagh, Nils Y. Hammerla, Bernhard Kainz, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
We propose a novel attention gate (AG) model for medical imaging that automatically learns to focus on target structures of varying shapes and sizes.
Ranked #1 on Pancreas Segmentation on CT-150
no code implementations • 25 Mar 2018 • Giacomo Tarroni, Ozan Oktay, Wenjia Bai, Andreas Schuh, Hideaki Suzuki, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Antonio de Marvao, Declan P. O'Regan, Stuart Cook, Ben Glocker, Paul M. Matthews, Daniel Rueckert
The results show the capability of the proposed pipeline to correctly detect incomplete or corrupted scans (e. g. on UK Biobank, sensitivity and specificity respectively 88% and 99% for heart coverage estimation, 85% and 95% for motion detection), allowing their exclusion from the analysed dataset or the triggering of a new acquisition.
In particular, the proposed architecture embeds the structure of the traditional iterative algorithms, efficiently modelling the recurrence of the iterative reconstruction stages by using recurrent hidden connections over such iterations.
We present DLTK, a toolkit providing baseline implementations for efficient experimentation with deep learning methods on biomedical images.
no code implementations • 4 Nov 2017 • Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Wenjia Bai, Enzo Ferrante, Steven McDonagh, Matthew Sinclair, Nick Pawlowski, Martin Rajchl, Matthew Lee, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert, Ben Glocker
Deep learning approaches such as convolutional neural nets have consistently outperformed previous methods on challenging tasks such as dense, semantic segmentation.
1 code implementation • 25 Oct 2017 • Wenjia Bai, Matthew Sinclair, Giacomo Tarroni, Ozan Oktay, Martin Rajchl, Ghislain Vaillant, Aaron M. Lee, Nay Aung, Elena Lukaschuk, Mihir M. Sanghvi, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Jose Miguel Paiva, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Hideaki Suzuki, Bernhard Kainz, Paul M. Matthews, Steffen E. Petersen, Stefan K. Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
By combining FCN with a large-scale annotated dataset, the proposed automated method achieves a high performance on par with human experts in segmenting the LV and RV on short-axis CMR images and the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) on long-axis CMR images.
We extensively evaluate the effectiveness of our approach quantitatively on simulated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), fetal brain imagery with synthetic motion and further demonstrate qualitative results on real fetal MRI data where our method is integrated into a full reconstruction and motion compensation pipeline.
Research on human face processing using eye movements has provided evidence that we recognize face images successfully focusing our visual attention on a few inner facial regions, mainly on the eyes, nose and mouth.
To efficiently establish training databases for machine learning methods, collaborative and crowdsourcing platforms have been investigated to collectively tackle the annotation effort.
no code implementations • 22 May 2017 • Ozan Oktay, Enzo Ferrante, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Mattias Heinrich, Wenjia Bai, Jose Caballero, Stuart Cook, Antonio de Marvao, Timothy Dawes, Declan O'Regan, Bernhard Kainz, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
However, in most recent and promising techniques such as CNN based segmentation it is not obvious how to incorporate such prior knowledge.
Firstly, we show that when each 2D image frame is reconstructed independently, the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art 2D compressed sensing approaches such as dictionary learning-based MR image reconstruction, in terms of reconstruction error and reconstruction speed.
Data-driven brain parcellations aim to provide a more accurate representation of an individual's functional connectivity, since they are able to capture individual variability that arises due to development or disease.
We demonstrate the potential of the method on the challenging ADNI and ABIDE databases, as a proof of concept of the benefit from integrating contextual information in classification tasks.
Evaluating similarity between graphs is of major importance in several computer vision and pattern recognition problems, where graph representations are often used to model objects or interactions between elements.
The acquisition of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is inherently slow.
Our approach is attractive in challenging imaging scenarios, where significant subject motion complicates reconstruction performance of 3D volumes from 2D slice data.
In RCA we take the predicted segmentation from a new image to train a reverse classifier which is evaluated on a set of reference images with available ground truth.
no code implementations • 28 Dec 2016 • Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Christian Baumgartner, Christian Ledig, Virginia F. J. Newcombe, Joanna P. Simpson, Andrew D. Kane, David K. Menon, Aditya Nori, Antonio Criminisi, Daniel Rueckert, Ben Glocker
In this work we investigate unsupervised domain adaptation using adversarial neural networks to train a segmentation method which is more invariant to differences in the input data, and which does not require any annotations on the test domain.
In this paper, we propose a novel method based on convolutional neural networks which can automatically detect 13 fetal standard views in freehand 2D ultrasound data as well as provide a localisation of the fetal structures via a bounding box.
1 code implementation • 22 Nov 2016 • Amir Alansary, Bernhard Kainz, Martin Rajchl, Maria Murgasova, Mellisa Damodaram, David F. A. Lloyd, Alice Davidson, Steven G. McDonagh, Mary Rutherford, Joseph V. Hajnal, Daniel Rueckert
In this paper we present a novel method for the correction of motion artifacts that are present in fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the whole uterus.
In this work we explore a method based on graph edit distance for evaluating graph similarity, when correspondences between network elements are unknown due to different underlying subdivisions of the brain.
This means that the super-resolution (SR) operation is performed in HR space.
Ranked #1 on Video Super-Resolution on Xiph HD - 4x upscaling
no code implementations • 3 Jun 2016 • Martin Rajchl, Matthew C. H. Lee, Franklin Schrans, Alice Davidson, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Giacomo Tarroni, Amir Alansary, Ozan Oktay, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
The availability of training data for supervision is a frequently encountered bottleneck of medical image analysis methods.
no code implementations • 25 May 2016 • Martin Rajchl, Matthew C. H. Lee, Ozan Oktay, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Wenjia Bai, Mellisa Damodaram, Mary A. Rutherford, Joseph V. Hajnal, Bernhard Kainz, Daniel Rueckert
In this paper, we propose DeepCut, a method to obtain pixelwise object segmentations given an image dataset labelled with bounding box annotations.
Multi-atlas segmentation is a widely used tool in medical image analysis, providing robust and accurate results by learning from annotated atlas datasets.
We propose a dual pathway, 11-layers deep, three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network for the challenging task of brain lesion segmentation.
Ranked #1 on Lesion Segmentation on ISLES-2015
The ideal similarity measure should be unbiased to segmentations of different volume and complexity, and be able to quantify and visualise segmentation bias.