Color symmetry implies that the colors of geometrical objects are assigned according to their symmetry properties.
Some structured networks are transient amplifiers.
This paper adds to the discussion about theoretical aspects of particle swarm stability by proposing to employ stochastic Lyapunov functions and to determine the convergence set by quantifier elimination.
Using structure coefficients defined for configurations describing such arrangements of any number of mutants, we provide results for weak selection to favor cooperation over defection on any regular graph with $N \leq 14$ vertices.
We study creating and analyzing symmetry and broken symmetry in digital art.
Whether or not cooperation is favored over defection in evolutionary games can be assigned by structure coefficients for any arrangement of cooperators and defectors on any network modeled as a regular graph.
For interaction networks modeled as regular graphs and for weak selection, the emergence of cooperation can be assessed by structure coefficients, which are specific for a configuration and a graph.
Moreover, the coefficients are specific for a given interaction network modeled as regular graph, which is why we may call them specific structure coefficients.
Coevolutionary game dynamics is the result of players that may change their strategies and their network of interaction.
Sand--bubblers are crabs of the genera Dotilla and Scopimera which are known to produce remarkable patterns and structures at tropical beaches.
The paper deals with using chaos to direct trajectories to targets and analyzes ruggedness and fractality of the resulting fitness landscapes.
Coevolutionary games cast players that may change their strategies as well as their networks of interaction.
Intransitivity is supposed to be a main reason for deficits in coevolutionary progress and inheritable superiority.
Coevolutionary minimal substrates are simple and abstract models that allow studying the relationships and codynamics between objective and subjective fitness.