Search Results for author: William W. Cohen

Found 87 papers, 31 papers with code

Stratified Prediction-Powered Inference for Hybrid Language Model Evaluation

no code implementations6 Jun 2024 Adam Fisch, Joshua Maynez, R. Alex Hofer, Bhuwan Dhingra, Amir Globerson, William W. Cohen

Prediction-powered inference (PPI) is a method that improves statistical estimates based on limited human-labeled data.

Language Modelling valid

Bayesian Prediction-Powered Inference

no code implementations9 May 2024 R. Alex Hofer, Joshua Maynez, Bhuwan Dhingra, Adam Fisch, Amir Globerson, William W. Cohen

Prediction-powered inference (PPI) is a method that improves statistical estimates based on limited human-labeled data.

Bayesian Inference

Characterizing Tradeoffs in Language Model Decoding with Informational Interpretations

no code implementations16 Nov 2023 Chung-Ching Chang, William W. Cohen, Yun-Hsuan Sung

We propose a theoretical framework for formulating language model decoder algorithms with dynamic programming and information theory.

Decoder Language Modelling

Trusted Source Alignment in Large Language Models

no code implementations12 Nov 2023 Vasilisa Bashlovkina, Zhaobin Kuang, Riley Matthews, Edward Clifford, Yennie Jun, William W. Cohen, Simon Baumgartner

Large language models (LLMs) are trained on web-scale corpora that inevitably include contradictory factual information from sources of varying reliability.

Fact Checking

SEMQA: Semi-Extractive Multi-Source Question Answering

2 code implementations8 Nov 2023 Tal Schuster, Adam D. Lelkes, Haitian Sun, Jai Gupta, Jonathan Berant, William W. Cohen, Donald Metzler

Experimenting with several LLMs in various settings, we find this task to be surprisingly challenging, demonstrating the importance of QuoteSum for developing and studying such consolidation capabilities.

Attribute Long Form Question Answering +1

MEMORY-VQ: Compression for Tractable Internet-Scale Memory

no code implementations28 Aug 2023 Yury Zemlyanskiy, Michiel de Jong, Luke Vilnis, Santiago Ontañón, William W. Cohen, Sumit Sanghai, Joshua Ainslie

Retrieval augmentation is a powerful but expensive method to make language models more knowledgeable about the world.

Quantization Retrieval

Answering Ambiguous Questions with a Database of Questions, Answers, and Revisions

no code implementations16 Aug 2023 Haitian Sun, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Many open-domain questions are under-specified and thus have multiple possible answers, each of which is correct under a different interpretation of the question.

Passage Retrieval Question Answering +1

GLIMMER: generalized late-interaction memory reranker

no code implementations17 Jun 2023 Michiel de Jong, Yury Zemlyanskiy, Nicholas FitzGerald, Sumit Sanghai, William W. Cohen, Joshua Ainslie

Memory-augmentation is a powerful approach for efficiently incorporating external information into language models, but leads to reduced performance relative to retrieving text.

Retrieval

Beyond Contrastive Learning: A Variational Generative Model for Multilingual Retrieval

1 code implementation21 Dec 2022 John Wieting, Jonathan H. Clark, William W. Cohen, Graham Neubig, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick

Contrastive learning has been successfully used for retrieval of semantically aligned sentences, but it often requires large batch sizes or careful engineering to work well.

Contrastive Learning Open-Domain Question Answering +4

Program of Thoughts Prompting: Disentangling Computation from Reasoning for Numerical Reasoning Tasks

2 code implementations22 Nov 2022 Wenhu Chen, Xueguang Ma, Xinyi Wang, William W. Cohen

By combining PoT with self-consistency decoding, we can achieve SoTA performance on all math problem datasets and near-SoTA performance on financial datasets.

Math

MuRAG: Multimodal Retrieval-Augmented Generator for Open Question Answering over Images and Text

no code implementations6 Oct 2022 Wenhu Chen, Hexiang Hu, Xi Chen, Pat Verga, William W. Cohen

While language Models store a massive amount of world knowledge implicitly in their parameters, even very large models often fail to encode information about rare entities and events, while incurring huge computational costs.

Open-Ended Question Answering Retrieval +2

Re-Imagen: Retrieval-Augmented Text-to-Image Generator

no code implementations29 Sep 2022 Wenhu Chen, Hexiang Hu, Chitwan Saharia, William W. Cohen

To further evaluate the capabilities of the model, we introduce EntityDrawBench, a new benchmark that evaluates image generation for diverse entities, from frequent to rare, across multiple object categories including dogs, foods, landmarks, birds, and characters.

Retrieval Text Retrieval +1

WinoDict: Probing language models for in-context word acquisition

no code implementations25 Sep 2022 Julian Martin Eisenschlos, Jeremy R. Cole, Fangyu Liu, William W. Cohen

We introduce a new in-context learning paradigm to measure Large Language Models' (LLMs) ability to learn novel words during inference.

In-Context Learning Probing Language Models

QA Is the New KR: Question-Answer Pairs as Knowledge Bases

no code implementations1 Jul 2022 Wenhu Chen, William W. Cohen, Michiel de Jong, Nitish Gupta, Alessandro Presta, Pat Verga, John Wieting

In this position paper, we propose a new approach to generating a type of knowledge base (KB) from text, based on question generation and entity linking.

Entity Linking Position +2

Reasoning over Logically Interacted Conditions for Question Answering

no code implementations25 May 2022 Haitian Sun, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Even more challenging, we only provide evidences for a subset of the conditions, so some questions may not have deterministic answers.

Logical Reasoning Question Answering

Transformer Memory as a Differentiable Search Index

1 code implementation14 Feb 2022 Yi Tay, Vinh Q. Tran, Mostafa Dehghani, Jianmo Ni, Dara Bahri, Harsh Mehta, Zhen Qin, Kai Hui, Zhe Zhao, Jai Gupta, Tal Schuster, William W. Cohen, Donald Metzler

In this paper, we demonstrate that information retrieval can be accomplished with a single Transformer, in which all information about the corpus is encoded in the parameters of the model.

Information Retrieval Retrieval

Explain, Edit, and Understand: Rethinking User Study Design for Evaluating Model Explanations

1 code implementation17 Dec 2021 Siddhant Arora, Danish Pruthi, Norman Sadeh, William W. Cohen, Zachary C. Lipton, Graham Neubig

Through our evaluation, we observe that for a linear bag-of-words model, participants with access to the feature coefficients during training are able to cause a larger reduction in model confidence in the testing phase when compared to the no-explanation control.

Deception Detection

ConditionalQA: A Complex Reading Comprehension Dataset with Conditional Answers

2 code implementations ACL 2022 Haitian Sun, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

In addition to conditional answers, the dataset also features: (1) long context documents with information that is related in logically complex ways; (2) multi-hop questions that require compositional logical reasoning; (3) a combination of extractive questions, yes/no questions, questions with multiple answers, and not-answerable questions; (4) questions asked without knowing the answers.

Logical Reasoning Question Answering +1

Multilingual Fact Linking

1 code implementation AKBC 2021 Keshav Kolluru, Martin Rezk, Pat Verga, William W. Cohen, Partha Talukdar

This makes it challenging to link KG facts to sentences in languages other than the limited set of languages.

Re-Ranking Retrieval +2

MATE: Multi-view Attention for Table Transformer Efficiency

1 code implementation EMNLP 2021 Julian Martin Eisenschlos, Maharshi Gor, Thomas Müller, William W. Cohen

However, more than 20% of relational tables on the web have 20 or more rows (Cafarella et al., 2008), and these large tables present a challenge for current Transformer models, which are typically limited to 512 tokens.

Inductive Bias Question Answering

Time-Aware Language Models as Temporal Knowledge Bases

no code implementations29 Jun 2021 Bhuwan Dhingra, Jeremy R. Cole, Julian Martin Eisenschlos, Daniel Gillick, Jacob Eisenstein, William W. Cohen

We introduce a diagnostic dataset aimed at probing LMs for factual knowledge that changes over time and highlight problems with LMs at either end of the spectrum -- those trained on specific slices of temporal data, as well as those trained on a wide range of temporal data.

Memorization

Iterative Hierarchical Attention for Answering Complex Questions over Long Documents

no code implementations1 Jun 2021 Haitian Sun, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

We propose a new model, DocHopper, that iteratively attends to different parts of long, hierarchically structured documents to answer complex questions.

Multi-hop Question Answering Question Answering +1

What's the best place for an AI conference, Vancouver or ______: Why completing comparative questions is difficult

no code implementations5 Apr 2021 Avishai Zagoury, Einat Minkov, Idan Szpektor, William W. Cohen

Here we study using such LMs to fill in entities in human-authored comparative questions, like ``Which country is older, India or ______?''

World Knowledge

Evaluating Explanations: How much do explanations from the teacher aid students?

1 code implementation1 Dec 2020 Danish Pruthi, Rachit Bansal, Bhuwan Dhingra, Livio Baldini Soares, Michael Collins, Zachary C. Lipton, Graham Neubig, William W. Cohen

While many methods purport to explain predictions by highlighting salient features, what aims these explanations serve and how they ought to be evaluated often go unstated.

Question Answering text-classification +1

Differentiable Open-Ended Commonsense Reasoning

no code implementations NAACL 2021 Bill Yuchen Lin, Haitian Sun, Bhuwan Dhingra, Manzil Zaheer, Xiang Ren, William W. Cohen

As a step towards making commonsense reasoning research more realistic, we propose to study open-ended commonsense reasoning (OpenCSR) -- the task of answering a commonsense question without any pre-defined choices -- using as a resource only a corpus of commonsense facts written in natural language.

Multiple-choice

Open Question Answering over Tables and Text

1 code implementation ICLR 2021 Wenhu Chen, Ming-Wei Chang, Eva Schlinger, William Wang, William W. Cohen

In open question answering (QA), the answer to a question is produced by retrieving and then analyzing documents that might contain answers to the question.

Open-Ended Question Answering Retrieval

Facts as Experts: Adaptable and Interpretable Neural Memory over Symbolic Knowledge

no code implementations2 Jul 2020 Pat Verga, Haitian Sun, Livio Baldini Soares, William W. Cohen

Massive language models are the core of modern NLP modeling and have been shown to encode impressive amounts of commonsense and factual information.

Language Modelling Question Answering

Faithful Embeddings for Knowledge Base Queries

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2020 Haitian Sun, Andrew O. Arnold, Tania Bedrax-Weiss, Fernando Pereira, William W. Cohen

We address this problem with a novel QE method that is more faithful to deductive reasoning, and show that this leads to better performance on complex queries to incomplete KBs.

Question Answering

Differentiable Reasoning over a Virtual Knowledge Base

1 code implementation ICLR 2020 Bhuwan Dhingra, Manzil Zaheer, Vidhisha Balachandran, Graham Neubig, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, William W. Cohen

In particular, we describe a neural module, DrKIT, that traverses textual data like a KB, softly following paths of relations between mentions of entities in the corpus.

Re-Ranking

Scalable Neural Methods for Reasoning With a Symbolic Knowledge Base

1 code implementation ICLR 2020 William W. Cohen, Haitian Sun, R. Alex Hofer, Matthew Siegler

We describe a novel way of representing a symbolic knowledge base (KB) called a sparse-matrix reified KB.

Game Design for Eliciting Distinguishable Behavior

no code implementations NeurIPS 2019 Fan Yang, Liu Leqi, Yifan Wu, Zachary C. Lipton, Pradeep Ravikumar, William W. Cohen, Tom Mitchell

The ability to inferring latent psychological traits from human behavior is key to developing personalized human-interacting machine learning systems.

Game Design

Handling Divergent Reference Texts when Evaluating Table-to-Text Generation

1 code implementation ACL 2019 Bhuwan Dhingra, Manaal Faruqui, Ankur Parikh, Ming-Wei Chang, Dipanjan Das, William W. Cohen

Automatically constructed datasets for generating text from semi-structured data (tables), such as WikiBio, often contain reference texts that diverge from the information in the corresponding semi-structured data.

Table-to-Text Generation

Differentiable Representations For Multihop Inference Rules

no code implementations24 May 2019 William W. Cohen, Haitian Sun, R. Alex Hofer, Matthew Siegler

We present efficient differentiable implementations of second-order multi-hop reasoning using a large symbolic knowledge base (KB).

Neural Query Language: A Knowledge Base Query Language for Tensorflow

no code implementations15 May 2019 William W. Cohen, Matthew Siegler, Alex Hofer

Large knowledge bases (KBs) are useful for many AI tasks, but are difficult to integrate into modern gradient-based learning systems.

PullNet: Open Domain Question Answering with Iterative Retrieval on Knowledge Bases and Text

no code implementations IJCNLP 2019 Haitian Sun, Tania Bedrax-Weiss, William W. Cohen

We focus on a setting in which a corpus is supplemented with a large but incomplete KB, and on questions that require non-trivial (e. g., ``multi-hop'') reasoning.

Open-Domain Question Answering Retrieval

Probing Biomedical Embeddings from Language Models

1 code implementation WS 2019 Qiao Jin, Bhuwan Dhingra, William W. Cohen, Xinghua Lu

For this we use the pre-trained LMs as fixed feature extractors and restrict the downstream task models to not have additional sequence modeling layers.

NER Word Embeddings

Incremental Reading for Question Answering

no code implementations15 Jan 2019 Samira Abnar, Tania Bedrax-Weiss, Tom Kwiatkowski, William W. Cohen

Current state-of-the-art question answering models reason over an entire passage, not incrementally.

Continual Learning Question Answering

GLoMo: Unsupervised Learning of Transferable Relational Graphs

no code implementations NeurIPS 2018 Zhilin Yang, Jake Zhao, Bhuwan Dhingra, Kaiming He, William W. Cohen, Ruslan R. Salakhutdinov, Yann Lecun

We also show that the learned graphs are generic enough to be transferred to different embeddings on which the graphs have not been trained (including GloVe embeddings, ELMo embeddings, and task-specific RNN hidden units), or embedding-free units such as image pixels.

Image Classification Natural Language Inference +4

Open Domain Question Answering Using Early Fusion of Knowledge Bases and Text

2 code implementations EMNLP 2018 Haitian Sun, Bhuwan Dhingra, Manzil Zaheer, Kathryn Mazaitis, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, William W. Cohen

In this paper we look at a more practical setting, namely QA over the combination of a KB and entity-linked text, which is appropriate when an incomplete KB is available with a large text corpus.

Graph Representation Learning Open-Domain Question Answering

GLoMo: Unsupervisedly Learned Relational Graphs as Transferable Representations

1 code implementation14 Jun 2018 Zhilin Yang, Jake Zhao, Bhuwan Dhingra, Kaiming He, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Yann Lecun

We also show that the learned graphs are generic enough to be transferred to different embeddings on which the graphs have not been trained (including GloVe embeddings, ELMo embeddings, and task-specific RNN hidden unit), or embedding-free units such as image pixels.

Image Classification Natural Language Inference +4

Neural Models for Reasoning over Multiple Mentions using Coreference

no code implementations NAACL 2018 Bhuwan Dhingra, Qiao Jin, Zhilin Yang, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Many problems in NLP require aggregating information from multiple mentions of the same entity which may be far apart in the text.

LAMBADA

LEARNING TO ORGANIZE KNOWLEDGE WITH N-GRAM MACHINES

no code implementations ICLR 2018 Fan Yang, Jiazhong Nie, William W. Cohen, Ni Lao

Existing end-to-end deep QA models (Miller et al., 2016; Weston et al., 2014) need to read the entire text after observing the question, and therefore their complexity in responding a question is linear in the text size.

Language Modelling Machine Translation +1

Learning to Organize Knowledge and Answer Questions with N-Gram Machines

no code implementations17 Nov 2017 Fan Yang, Jiazhong Nie, William W. Cohen, Ni Lao

Though deep neural networks have great success in natural language processing, they are limited at more knowledge intensive AI tasks, such as open-domain Question Answering (QA).

Open-Domain Question Answering

Breaking the Softmax Bottleneck: A High-Rank RNN Language Model

9 code implementations ICLR 2018 Zhilin Yang, Zihang Dai, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, William W. Cohen

We formulate language modeling as a matrix factorization problem, and show that the expressiveness of Softmax-based models (including the majority of neural language models) is limited by a Softmax bottleneck.

Language Modelling Vocal Bursts Intensity Prediction +1

TensorLog: Deep Learning Meets Probabilistic DBs

no code implementations17 Jul 2017 William W. Cohen, Fan Yang, Kathryn Rivard Mazaitis

We present an implementation of a probabilistic first-order logic called TensorLog, in which classes of logical queries are compiled into differentiable functions in a neural-network infrastructure such as Tensorflow or Theano.

Logical Reasoning

Good Semi-supervised Learning that Requires a Bad GAN

1 code implementation NeurIPS 2017 Zihang Dai, Zhilin Yang, Fan Yang, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Semi-supervised learning methods based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) obtained strong empirical results, but it is not clear 1) how the discriminator benefits from joint training with a generator, and 2) why good semi-supervised classification performance and a good generator cannot be obtained at the same time.

General Classification Semi-Supervised Image Classification

Linguistic Knowledge as Memory for Recurrent Neural Networks

no code implementations7 Mar 2017 Bhuwan Dhingra, Zhilin Yang, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

We introduce a model that encodes such graphs as explicit memory in recurrent neural networks, and use it to model coreference relations in text.

LAMBADA

A Comparative Study of Word Embeddings for Reading Comprehension

no code implementations2 Mar 2017 Bhuwan Dhingra, Hanxiao Liu, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, William W. Cohen

The focus of past machine learning research for Reading Comprehension tasks has been primarily on the design of novel deep learning architectures.

BIG-bench Machine Learning Reading Comprehension +1

Differentiable Learning of Logical Rules for Knowledge Base Reasoning

2 code implementations NeurIPS 2017 Fan Yang, Zhilin Yang, William W. Cohen

We propose a framework, Neural Logic Programming, that combines the parameter and structure learning of first-order logical rules in an end-to-end differentiable model.

Semi-Supervised QA with Generative Domain-Adaptive Nets

no code implementations ACL 2017 Zhilin Yang, Junjie Hu, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, William W. Cohen

In this framework, we train a generative model to generate questions based on the unlabeled text, and combine model-generated questions with human-generated questions for training question answering models.

Domain Adaptation Question Answering +2

Words or Characters? Fine-grained Gating for Reading Comprehension

1 code implementation6 Nov 2016 Zhilin Yang, Bhuwan Dhingra, Ye Yuan, Junjie Hu, William W. Cohen, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Previous work combines word-level and character-level representations using concatenation or scalar weighting, which is suboptimal for high-level tasks like reading comprehension.

Question Answering Reading Comprehension +1

Bootstrapping Distantly Supervised IE using Joint Learning and Small Well-structured Corpora

no code implementations10 Jun 2016 Lidong Bing, Bhuwan Dhingra, Kathryn Mazaitis, Jong Hyuk Park, William W. Cohen

We propose a framework to improve performance of distantly-supervised relation extraction, by jointly learning to solve two related tasks: concept-instance extraction and relation extraction.

Relation Relation Extraction

TensorLog: A Differentiable Deductive Database

1 code implementation20 May 2016 William W. Cohen

Then, for each type of query to the factor graph, the message-passing steps required to perform belief propagation (BP) are "unrolled" into a function, which is differentiable.

Distant IE by Bootstrapping Using Lists and Document Structure

no code implementations4 Jan 2016 Lidong Bing, Mingyang Ling, Richard C. Wang, William W. Cohen

Distant labeling for information extraction (IE) suffers from noisy training data.

Grounded Discovery of Coordinate Term Relationships between Software Entities

no code implementations1 May 2015 Dana Movshovitz-Attias, William W. Cohen

To this end, we develop a similarity measure for Java classes using distributional information about how they are used in software, which we combine with corpus statistics on the distribution of contexts in which the classes appear in text.

Efficient Inference and Learning in a Large Knowledge Base: Reasoning with Extracted Information using a Locally Groundable First-Order Probabilistic Logic

no code implementations12 Apr 2014 William Yang Wang, Kathryn Mazaitis, Ni Lao, Tom Mitchell, William W. Cohen

We show that the problem of constructing proofs for this logic is related to computation of personalized PageRank (PPR) on a linearized version of the proof space, and using on this connection, we develop a proveably-correct approximate grounding scheme, based on the PageRank-Nibble algorithm.

Relational Reasoning

WebSets: Extracting Sets of Entities from the Web Using Unsupervised Information Extraction

no code implementations1 Jul 2013 Bhavana Dalvi, William W. Cohen, Jamie Callan

We describe a open-domain information extraction method for extracting concept-instance pairs from an HTML corpus.

Clustering Information Retrieval

Exploratory Learning

no code implementations1 Jul 2013 Bhavana Dalvi, William W. Cohen, Jamie Callan

In multiclass semi-supervised learning (SSL), it is sometimes the case that the number of classes present in the data is not known, and hence no labeled examples are provided for some classes.

Clustering

The Effect of Biased Communications On Both Trusting and Suspicious Voters

no code implementations11 Jun 2013 William W. Cohen, David P. Redlawsk, Douglas Pierce

We consider scenarios in which this effect arises in a model of rational decision making which includes the possibility of deceptive information.

Decision Making

Programming with Personalized PageRank: A Locally Groundable First-Order Probabilistic Logic

no code implementations10 May 2013 William Yang Wang, Kathryn Mazaitis, William W. Cohen

In many probabilistic first-order representation systems, inference is performed by "grounding"---i. e., mapping it to a propositional representation, and then performing propositional inference.

Entity Resolution

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