The localization pipeline is designed as a coarse-to-fine paradigm.
For the vehicle detection and tracking module, we adopted YOLOv5 and multi-scale tracking to localize the anomalies.
The success of the former heavily depends on the quality of the shadow model, i. e., the transferability between the shadow and the target; the latter, given only blackbox probing access to the target model, cannot make an effective inference of unknowns, compared with MI attacks using shadow models, due to the insufficient number of qualified samples labeled with ground truth membership information.
The K-means algorithm is arguably the most popular data clustering method, commonly applied to processed datasets in some "feature spaces", as is in spectral clustering.
The paper presents a Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) system, which can fast and accurately recognize traffic signs of different sizes in images.