A Spectral-Spatial-Dependent Global Learning Framework for Insufficient and Imbalanced Hyperspectral Image Classification

29 May 2021  ·  Qiqi Zhu, Weihuan Deng, Zhuo Zheng, Yanfei Zhong, Qingfeng Guan, Weihua Lin, Liangpei Zhang, Deren Li ·

Deep learning techniques have been widely applied to hyperspectral image (HSI) classification and have achieved great success. However, the deep neural network model has a large parameter space and requires a large number of labeled data. Deep learning methods for HSI classification usually follow a patchwise learning framework. Recently, a fast patch-free global learning (FPGA) architecture was proposed for HSI classification according to global spatial context information. However, FPGA has difficulty extracting the most discriminative features when the sample data is imbalanced. In this paper, a spectral-spatial dependent global learning (SSDGL) framework based on global convolutional long short-term memory (GCL) and global joint attention mechanism (GJAM) is proposed for insufficient and imbalanced HSI classification. In SSDGL, the hierarchically balanced (H-B) sampling strategy and the weighted softmax loss are proposed to address the imbalanced sample problem. To effectively distinguish similar spectral characteristics of land cover types, the GCL module is introduced to extract the long short-term dependency of spectral features. To learn the most discriminative feature representations, the GJAM module is proposed to extract attention areas. The experimental results obtained with three public HSI datasets show that the SSDGL has powerful performance in insufficient and imbalanced sample problems and is superior to other state-of-the-art methods. Code can be obtained at: https://github.com/dengweihuan/SSDGL.

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Benchmark
Hyperspectral Image Classification CASI University of Houston SSDGL Overall Accuracy 95.36 # 1
Hyperspectral Image Classification Indian Pines SSDGL Overall Accuracy 99.63% # 4
Kappa 0.9958 # 1
Hyperspectral Image Classification Pavia University SSDGL Overall Accuracy 99.97% # 3
Kappa@1% 0.9996 # 1