The CIFAR-10 dataset (Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 10 classes) is a subset of the Tiny Images dataset and consists of 60000 32x32 color images. The images are labelled with one of 10 mutually exclusive classes: airplane, automobile (but not truck or pickup truck), bird, cat, deer, dog, frog, horse, ship, and truck (but not pickup truck). There are 6000 images per class with 5000 training and 1000 testing images per class.
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The ImageNet dataset contains 14,197,122 annotated images according to the WordNet hierarchy. Since 2010 the dataset is used in the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC), a benchmark in image classification and object detection. The publicly released dataset contains a set of manually annotated training images. A set of test images is also released, with the manual annotations withheld. ILSVRC annotations fall into one of two categories: (1) image-level annotation of a binary label for the presence or absence of an object class in the image, e.g., “there are cars in this image” but “there are no tigers,” and (2) object-level annotation of a tight bounding box and class label around an object instance in the image, e.g., “there is a screwdriver centered at position (20,25) with width of 50 pixels and height of 30 pixels”. The ImageNet project does not own the copyright of the images, therefore only thumbnails and URLs of images are provided.
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The MS COCO (Microsoft Common Objects in Context) dataset is a large-scale object detection, segmentation, key-point detection, and captioning dataset. The dataset consists of 328K images.
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The MNIST database (Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database) is a large collection of handwritten digits. It has a training set of 60,000 examples, and a test set of 10,000 examples. It is a subset of a larger NIST Special Database 3 (digits written by employees of the United States Census Bureau) and Special Database 1 (digits written by high school students) which contain monochrome images of handwritten digits. The digits have been size-normalized and centered in a fixed-size image. The original black and white (bilevel) images from NIST were size normalized to fit in a 20x20 pixel box while preserving their aspect ratio. The resulting images contain grey levels as a result of the anti-aliasing technique used by the normalization algorithm. the images were centered in a 28x28 image by computing the center of mass of the pixels, and translating the image so as to position this point at the center of the 28x28 field.
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The CIFAR-100 dataset (Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 100 classes) is a subset of the Tiny Images dataset and consists of 60000 32x32 color images. The 100 classes in the CIFAR-100 are grouped into 20 superclasses. There are 600 images per class. Each image comes with a "fine" label (the class to which it belongs) and a "coarse" label (the superclass to which it belongs). There are 500 training images and 100 testing images per class.
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Cityscapes is a large-scale database which focuses on semantic understanding of urban street scenes. It provides semantic, instance-wise, and dense pixel annotations for 30 classes grouped into 8 categories (flat surfaces, humans, vehicles, constructions, objects, nature, sky, and void). The dataset consists of around 5000 fine annotated images and 20000 coarse annotated ones. Data was captured in 50 cities during several months, daytimes, and good weather conditions. It was originally recorded as video so the frames were manually selected to have the following features: large number of dynamic objects, varying scene layout, and varying background.
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Street View House Numbers (SVHN) is a digit classification benchmark dataset that contains 600,000 32×32 RGB images of printed digits (from 0 to 9) cropped from pictures of house number plates. The cropped images are centered in the digit of interest, but nearby digits and other distractors are kept in the image. SVHN has three sets: training, testing sets and an extra set with 530,000 images that are less difficult and can be used for helping with the training process.
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KITTI (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and Toyota Technological Institute) is one of the most popular datasets for use in mobile robotics and autonomous driving. It consists of hours of traffic scenarios recorded with a variety of sensor modalities, including high-resolution RGB, grayscale stereo cameras, and a 3D laser scanner. Despite its popularity, the dataset itself does not contain ground truth for semantic segmentation. However, various researchers have manually annotated parts of the dataset to fit their necessities. Álvarez et al. generated ground truth for 323 images from the road detection challenge with three classes: road, vertical, and sky. Zhang et al. annotated 252 (140 for training and 112 for testing) acquisitions – RGB and Velodyne scans – from the tracking challenge for ten object categories: building, sky, road, vegetation, sidewalk, car, pedestrian, cyclist, sign/pole, and fence. Ros et al. labeled 170 training images and 46 testing images (from the visual odome
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CelebFaces Attributes dataset contains 202,599 face images of the size 178×218 from 10,177 celebrities, each annotated with 40 binary labels indicating facial attributes like hair color, gender and age.
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Fashion-MNIST is a dataset comprising of 28×28 grayscale images of 70,000 fashion products from 10 categories, with 7,000 images per category. The training set has 60,000 images and the test set has 10,000 images. Fashion-MNIST shares the same image size, data format and the structure of training and testing splits with the original MNIST.
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General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE) benchmark is a collection of nine natural language understanding tasks, including single-sentence tasks CoLA and SST-2, similarity and paraphrasing tasks MRPC, STS-B and QQP, and natural language inference tasks MNLI, QNLI, RTE and WNLI.
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The Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) is a collection of question-answer pairs derived from Wikipedia articles. In SQuAD, the correct answers of questions can be any sequence of tokens in the given text. Because the questions and answers are produced by humans through crowdsourcing, it is more diverse than some other question-answering datasets. SQuAD 1.1 contains 107,785 question-answer pairs on 536 articles. SQuAD2.0 (open-domain SQuAD, SQuAD-Open), the latest version, combines the 100,000 questions in SQuAD1.1 with over 50,000 un-answerable questions written adversarially by crowdworkers in forms that are similar to the answerable ones.
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The Caltech-UCSD Birds-200-2011 (CUB-200-2011) dataset is the most widely-used dataset for fine-grained visual categorization task. It contains 11,788 images of 200 subcategories belonging to birds, 5,994 for training and 5,794 for testing. Each image has detailed annotations: 1 subcategory label, 15 part locations, 312 binary attributes and 1 bounding box. The textual information comes from Reed et al.. They expand the CUB-200-2011 dataset by collecting fine-grained natural language descriptions. Ten single-sentence descriptions are collected for each image. The natural language descriptions are collected through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) platform, and are required at least 10 words, without any information of subcategories and actions.
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The Stanford Sentiment Treebank is a corpus with fully labeled parse trees that allows for a complete analysis of the compositional effects of sentiment in language. The corpus is based on the dataset introduced by Pang and Lee (2005) and consists of 11,855 single sentences extracted from movie reviews. It was parsed with the Stanford parser and includes a total of 215,154 unique phrases from those parse trees, each annotated by 3 human judges.
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The English Penn Treebank (PTB) corpus, and in particular the section of the corpus corresponding to the articles of Wall Street Journal (WSJ), is one of the most known and used corpus for the evaluation of models for sequence labelling. The task consists of annotating each word with its Part-of-Speech tag. In the most common split of this corpus, sections from 0 to 18 are used for training (38 219 sentences, 912 344 tokens), sections from 19 to 21 are used for validation (5 527 sentences, 131 768 tokens), and sections from 22 to 24 are used for testing (5 462 sentences, 129 654 tokens). The corpus is also commonly used for character-level and word-level Language Modelling.
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The LibriSpeech corpus is a collection of approximately 1,000 hours of audiobooks that are a part of the LibriVox project. Most of the audiobooks come from the Project Gutenberg. The training data is split into 3 partitions of 100hr, 360hr, and 500hr sets while the dev and test data are split into the ’clean’ and ’other’ categories, respectively, depending upon how well or challening Automatic Speech Recognition systems would perform against. Each of the dev and test sets is around 5hr in audio length. This corpus also provides the n-gram language models and the corresponding texts excerpted from the Project Gutenberg books, which contain 803M tokens and 977K unique words.
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UCF101 dataset is an extension of UCF50 and consists of 13,320 video clips, which are classified into 101 categories. These 101 categories can be classified into 5 types (Body motion, Human-human interactions, Human-object interactions, Playing musical instruments and Sports). The total length of these video clips is over 27 hours. All the videos are collected from YouTube and have a fixed frame rate of 25 FPS with the resolution of 320 × 240.
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The Multi-Genre Natural Language Inference (MultiNLI) dataset has 433K sentence pairs. Its size and mode of collection are modeled closely like SNLI. MultiNLI offers ten distinct genres (Face-to-face, Telephone, 9/11, Travel, Letters, Oxford University Press, Slate, Verbatim, Goverment and Fiction) of written and spoken English data. There are matched dev/test sets which are derived from the same sources as those in the training set, and mismatched sets which do not closely resemble any seen at training time.
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ShapeNet is a large scale repository for 3D CAD models developed by researchers from Stanford University, Princeton University and the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago, USA. The repository contains over 300M models with 220,000 classified into 3,135 classes arranged using WordNet hypernym-hyponym relationships. ShapeNet Parts subset contains 31,693 meshes categorised into 16 common object classes (i.e. table, chair, plane etc.). Each shapes ground truth contains 2-5 parts (with a total of 50 part classes).
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The IMDb Movie Reviews dataset is a binary sentiment analysis dataset consisting of 50,000 reviews from the Internet Movie Database (IMDb) labeled as positive or negative. The dataset contains an even number of positive and negative reviews. Only highly polarizing reviews are considered. A negative review has a score ≤ 4 out of 10, and a positive review has a score ≥ 7 out of 10. No more than 30 reviews are included per movie. The dataset contains additional unlabeled data.
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Visual Question Answering (VQA) is a dataset containing open-ended questions about images. These questions require an understanding of vision, language and commonsense knowledge to answer. The first version of the dataset was released in October 2015. VQA v2.0 was released in April 2017.
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The SNLI dataset (Stanford Natural Language Inference) consists of 570k sentence-pairs manually labeled as entailment, contradiction, and neutral. Premises are image captions from Flickr30k, while hypotheses were generated by crowd-sourced annotators who were shown a premise and asked to generate entailing, contradicting, and neutral sentences. Annotators were instructed to judge the relation between sentences given that they describe the same event. Each pair is labeled as “entailment”, “neutral”, “contradiction” or “-”, where “-” indicates that an agreement could not be reached.
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mini-Imagenet is proposed by Matching Networks for One Shot Learning . In NeurIPS, 2016. This dataset consists of 50000 training images and 10000 testing images, evenly distributed across 100 classes.
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MuJoCo (multi-joint dynamics with contact) is a physics engine used to implement environments to benchmark Reinforcement Learning methods.
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OpenAI Gym is a toolkit for developing and comparing reinforcement learning algorithms. It includes environment such as Algorithmic, Atari, Box2D, Classic Control, MuJoCo, Robotics, and Toy Text.
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The ModelNet40 dataset contains synthetic object point clouds. As the most widely used benchmark for point cloud analysis, ModelNet40 is popular because of its various categories, clean shapes, well-constructed dataset, etc. The original ModelNet40 consists of 12,311 CAD-generated meshes in 40 categories (such as airplane, car, plant, lamp), of which 9,843 are used for training while the rest 2,468 are reserved for testing. The corresponding point cloud data points are uniformly sampled from the mesh surfaces, and then further preprocessed by moving to the origin and scaling into a unit sphere.
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The Kinetics dataset is a large-scale, high-quality dataset for human action recognition in videos. The dataset consists of around 500,000 video clips covering 600 human action classes with at least 600 video clips for each action class. Each video clip lasts around 10 seconds and is labeled with a single action class. The videos are collected from YouTube.
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Visual Genome contains Visual Question Answering data in a multi-choice setting. It consists of 101,174 images from MSCOCO with 1.7 million QA pairs, 17 questions per image on average. Compared to the Visual Question Answering dataset, Visual Genome represents a more balanced distribution over 6 question types: What, Where, When, Who, Why and How. The Visual Genome dataset also presents 108K images with densely annotated objects, attributes and relationships.
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The MovieLens datasets, first released in 1998, describe people’s expressed preferences for movies. These preferences take the form of tuples, each the result of a person expressing a preference (a 0-5 star rating) for a movie at a particular time. These preferences were entered by way of the MovieLens web site1 — a recommender system that asks its users to give movie ratings in order to receive personalized movie recommendations.
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The Pubmed dataset consists of 19717 scientific publications from PubMed database pertaining to diabetes classified into one of three classes. The citation network consists of 44338 links. Each publication in the dataset is described by a TF/IDF weighted word vector from a dictionary which consists of 500 unique words.
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The Places dataset is proposed for scene recognition and contains more than 2.5 million images covering more than 205 scene categories with more than 5,000 images per category.
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The LFW dataset contains 13,233 images of faces collected from the web. This dataset consists of the 5749 identities with 1680 people with two or more images. In the standard LFW evaluation protocol the verification accuracies are reported on 6000 face pairs.
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Market-1501 is a large-scale public benchmark dataset for person re-identification. It contains 1501 identities which are captured by six different cameras, and 32,668 pedestrian image bounding-boxes obtained using the Deformable Part Models pedestrian detector. Each person has 3.6 images on average at each viewpoint. The dataset is split into two parts: 750 identities are utilized for training and the remaining 751 identities are used for testing. In the official testing protocol 3,368 query images are selected as probe set to find the correct match across 19,732 reference gallery images.
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The STL-10 is an image dataset derived from ImageNet and popularly used to evaluate algorithms of unsupervised feature learning or self-taught learning. Besides 100,000 unlabeled images, it contains 13,000 labeled images from 10 object classes (such as birds, cats, trucks), among which 5,000 images are partitioned for training while the remaining 8,000 images for testing. All the images are color images with 96×96 pixels in size.
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The QNLI (Question-answering NLI) dataset is a Natural Language Inference dataset automatically derived from the Stanford Question Answering Dataset v1.1 (SQuAD). SQuAD v1.1 consists of question-paragraph pairs, where one of the sentences in the paragraph (drawn from Wikipedia) contains the answer to the corresponding question (written by an annotator). The dataset was converted into sentence pair classification by forming a pair between each question and each sentence in the corresponding context, and filtering out pairs with low lexical overlap between the question and the context sentence. The task is to determine whether the context sentence contains the answer to the question. This modified version of the original task removes the requirement that the model select the exact answer, but also removes the simplifying assumptions that the answer is always present in the input and that lexical overlap is a reliable cue. The QNLI dataset is part of GLEU benchmark.
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The nuScenes dataset is a large-scale autonomous driving dataset. The dataset has 3D bounding boxes for 1000 scenes collected in Boston and Singapore. Each scene is 20 seconds long and annotated at 2Hz. This results in a total of 28130 samples for training, 6019 samples for validation and 6008 samples for testing. The dataset has the full autonomous vehicle data suite: 32-beam LiDAR, 6 cameras and radars with complete 360° coverage. The 3D object detection challenge evaluates the performance on 10 classes: cars, trucks, buses, trailers, construction vehicles, pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles, traffic cones and barriers.
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CARLA (CAR Learning to Act) is an open simulator for urban driving, developed as an open-source layer over Unreal Engine 4. Technically, it operates similarly to, as an open source layer over Unreal Engine 4 that provides sensors in the form of RGB cameras (with customizable positions), ground truth depth maps, ground truth semantic segmentation maps with 12 semantic classes designed for driving (road, lane marking, traffic sign, sidewalk and so on), bounding boxes for dynamic objects in the environment, and measurements of the agent itself (vehicle location and orientation).
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Flickr-Faces-HQ (FFHQ) consists of 70,000 high-quality PNG images at 1024×1024 resolution and contains considerable variation in terms of age, ethnicity and image background. It also has good coverage of accessories such as eyeglasses, sunglasses, hats, etc. The images were crawled from Flickr, thus inheriting all the biases of that website, and automatically aligned and cropped using dlib. Only images under permissive licenses were collected. Various automatic filters were used to prune the set, and finally Amazon Mechanical Turk was used to remove the occasional statues, paintings, or photos of photos.
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ScanNet is an instance-level indoor RGB-D dataset that includes both 2D and 3D data. It is a collection of labeled voxels rather than points or objects. Up to now, ScanNet v2, the newest version of ScanNet, has collected 1513 annotated scans with an approximate 90% surface coverage. In the semantic segmentation task, this dataset is marked in 20 classes of annotated 3D voxelized objects.
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The HMDB51 dataset is a large collection of realistic videos from various sources, including movies and web videos. The dataset is composed of 6,849 video clips from 51 action categories (such as “jump”, “kiss” and “laugh”), with each category containing at least 101 clips. The original evaluation scheme uses three different training/testing splits. In each split, each action class has 70 clips for training and 30 clips for testing. The average accuracy over these three splits is used to measure the final performance.
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The Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) dataset is a large, de-identified and publicly-available collection of medical records. Each record in the dataset includes ICD-9 codes, which identify diagnoses and procedures performed. Each code is partitioned into sub-codes, which often include specific circumstantial details. The dataset consists of 112,000 clinical reports records (average length 709.3 tokens) and 1,159 top-level ICD-9 codes. Each report is assigned to 7.6 codes, on average. Data includes vital signs, medications, laboratory measurements, observations and notes charted by care providers, fluid balance, procedure codes, diagnostic codes, imaging reports, hospital length of stay, survival data, and more.
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The NYU-Depth V2 data set is comprised of video sequences from a variety of indoor scenes as recorded by both the RGB and Depth cameras from the Microsoft Kinect. It features:
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Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) is a method for synthesizing novel views of complex scenes by optimizing an underlying continuous volumetric scene function using a sparse set of input views. The dataset contains three parts with the first 2 being synthetic renderings of objects called Diffuse Synthetic 360◦ and Realistic Synthetic 360◦ while the third is real images of complex scenes. Diffuse Synthetic 360◦ consists of four Lambertian objects with simple geometry. Each object is rendered at 512x512 pixels from viewpoints sampled on the upper hemisphere. Realistic Synthetic 360◦ consists of eight objects of complicated geometry and realistic non-Lambertian materials. Six of them are rendered from viewpoints sampled on the upper hemisphere and the two left are from viewpoints sampled on a full sphere with all of them at 800x800 pixels. The real images of complex scenes consist of 8 forward-facing scenes captured with a cellphone at a size of 1008x756 pixels.
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ConceptNet is a knowledge graph that connects words and phrases of natural language with labeled edges. Its knowledge is collected from many sources that include expert-created resources, crowd-sourcing, and games with a purpose. It is designed to represent the general knowledge involved in understanding language, improving natural language applications by allowing the application to better understand the meanings behind the words people use.
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Oxford 102 Flower is an image classification dataset consisting of 102 flower categories. The flowers chosen to be flower commonly occurring in the United Kingdom. Each class consists of between 40 and 258 images.
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Office-Home is a benchmark dataset for domain adaptation which contains 4 domains where each domain consists of 65 categories. The four domains are: Art – artistic images in the form of sketches, paintings, ornamentation, etc.; Clipart – collection of clipart images; Product – images of objects without a background and Real-World – images of objects captured with a regular camera. It contains 15,500 images, with an average of around 70 images per class and a maximum of 99 images in a class.
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The Large-scale Scene Understanding (LSUN) challenge aims to provide a different benchmark for large-scale scene classification and understanding. The LSUN classification dataset contains 10 scene categories, such as dining room, bedroom, chicken, outdoor church, and so on. For training data, each category contains a huge number of images, ranging from around 120,000 to 3,000,000. The validation data includes 300 images, and the test data has 1000 images for each category.
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The ADE20K semantic segmentation dataset contains more than 20K scene-centric images exhaustively annotated with pixel-level objects and object parts labels. There are totally 150 semantic categories, which include stuffs like sky, road, grass, and discrete objects like person, car, bed.
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