An Overview of Advances in Signal Processing Techniques for Classical and Quantum Wideband Synthetic Apertures

Rapid developments in synthetic aperture (SA) systems, which generate a larger aperture with greater angular resolution than is inherently possible from the physical dimensions of a single sensor alone, are leading to novel research avenues in several signal processing applications. The SAs may either use a mechanical positioner to move an antenna through space or deploy a distributed network of sensors. With the advent of new hardware technologies, the SAs tend to be denser nowadays. The recent opening of higher frequency bands has led to wide SA bandwidths. In general, new techniques and setups are required to harness the potential of wide SAs in space and bandwidth. Herein, we provide a brief overview of emerging signal processing trends in such spatially and spectrally wideband SA systems. This guide is intended to aid newcomers in navigating the most critical issues in SA analysis and further supports the development of new theories in the field. In particular, we cover the theoretical framework and practical underpinnings of wideband SA radar, channel sounding, sonar, radiometry, and optical applications. Apart from the classical SA applications, we also discuss the quantum electric-field-sensing probes in SAs that are currently undergoing active research but remain at nascent stages of development.

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