Attention-Based Second-Order Pooling Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Deep learning (DL) has exhibited huge potentials for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification due to its powerful nonlinear modeling and end-to-end optimization characteristics. Although the superior performance of DL-based methods has been witnessed, some limitations can still be found. On the one hand, existing DL frameworks usually resorted to first-order statistical features, whereas they rarely considered second-order or higher-order statistical features. On the other hand, the optimization of complex hyperparameters (e.g., the layer number and convolutional kernel size) is time-consuming and a very tough task, making the designed DL framework unexplainable. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel attention-based second-order pooling network (A-SPN). First, a first-order feature operator is designed to model the spectral–spatial information of HSI. Second, an attention-based second-order pooling (A-SOP) operator is designed to model discriminative and representative features. Finally, a fully connected layer with softmax loss is used for classification. The proposed framework can obtain second-order statistical features in an end-to-end manner. In addition, A-SPN is free of complex hyperparameters tuning, making it more explainable and easily equipped for classification tasks. Experimental results based on three common hyperspectral data sets demonstrate that A-SPN outperforms other traditional and state-of-the-art DL-based HSI classification methods in terms of generalization performance with limited training samples, classification accuracy, convergence rate, and computational complexity.

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Results from the Paper

 Ranked #1 on Hyperspectral Image Classification on Houston (using extra training data)

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Uses Extra
Training Data
Hyperspectral Image Classification Houston A-SPN Overall Accuracy 97.27% # 1
Hyperspectral Image Classification Indian Pines A-SPN Overall Accuracy 99.24% # 9
Hyperspectral Image Classification Pavia University A-SPN Overall Accuracy 99.65% # 9