Energy Models for Better Pseudo-Labels: Improving Semi-Supervised Classification with the 1-Laplacian Graph Energy

Semi-supervised classification is a great focus of interest, as in real-world scenarios obtaining labels is expensive, time-consuming and might require expert knowledge. This has motivated the fast development of semi-supervised techniques, whose performance is on a par with or better than supervised approaches. A current major challenge for semi-supervised techniques is how to better handle the network calibration and confirmation bias problems for improving performance. In this work, we argue that energy models are an effective alternative to such problems. With this motivation in mind, we propose a hybrid framework for semi-supervised classification called CREPE model (1-Lapla$\mathbf{C}$ian g$\mathbf{R}$aph $\mathbf{E}$nergy for $\mathbf{P}$seudo-lab$\mathbf{E}$ls). Firstly, we introduce a new energy model based on the non-smooth $\ell_1$ norm of the normalised graph 1-Laplacian. Our functional enforces a sufficiently smooth solution and strengthens the intrinsic relation between the labelled and unlabelled data. Secondly, we provide a theoretical analysis for our proposed scheme and show that the solution trajectory does converge to a non-constant steady point. Thirdly, we derive the connection of our energy model for pseudo-labelling. We show that our energy model produces more meaningful pseudo-labels than the ones generated directly by a deep network. We extensively evaluate our framework, through numerical and visual experiments, using six benchmarking datasets for natural and medical images. We demonstrate that our technique reports state-of-the-art results for semi-supervised classification.

PDF Abstract

Results from the Paper

  Submit results from this paper to get state-of-the-art GitHub badges and help the community compare results to other papers.


No methods listed for this paper. Add relevant methods here