Synthesizing MR Image Contrast Enhancement Using 3D High-resolution ConvNets

\textit{Objective:} Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been widely used to better visualize disease in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium deposition within the brain and body has raised safety concerns about the use of GBCAs. Therefore, the development of novel approaches that can decrease or even eliminate GBCA exposure while providing similar contrast information would be of significant use clinically. \textit{Methods:} In this work, we present a deep learning based approach for contrast-enhanced T1 synthesis on brain tumor patients. A 3D high-resolution fully convolutional network (FCN), which maintains high resolution information through processing and aggregates multi-scale information in parallel, is designed to map pre-contrast MRI sequences to contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. Specifically, three pre-contrast MRI sequences, T1, T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient map (ADC), are utilized as inputs and the post-contrast T1 sequences are utilized as target output. To alleviate the data imbalance problem between normal tissues and the tumor regions, we introduce a local loss to improve the contribution of the tumor regions, which leads to better enhancement results on tumors. \textit{Results:} Extensive quantitative and visual assessments are performed, with our proposed model achieving a PSNR of 28.24dB in the brain and 21.2dB in tumor regions. \textit{Conclusion and Significance:} Our results suggest the potential of substituting GBCAs with synthetic contrast images generated via deep learning. Code is available at \url{

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