Digital Watermarking for Deep Neural Networks

6 Feb 2018  ·  Yuki Nagai, Yusuke Uchida, Shigeyuki Sakazawa, Shin'ichi Satoh ·

Although deep neural networks have made tremendous progress in the area of multimedia representation, training neural models requires a large amount of data and time. It is well-known that utilizing trained models as initial weights often achieves lower training error than neural networks that are not pre-trained... A fine-tuning step helps to reduce both the computational cost and improve performance. Therefore, sharing trained models has been very important for the rapid progress of research and development. In addition, trained models could be important assets for the owner(s) who trained them, hence we regard trained models as intellectual property. In this paper, we propose a digital watermarking technology for ownership authorization of deep neural networks. First, we formulate a new problem: embedding watermarks into deep neural networks. We also define requirements, embedding situations, and attack types on watermarking in deep neural networks. Second, we propose a general framework for embedding a watermark in model parameters, using a parameter regularizer. Our approach does not impair the performance of networks into which a watermark is placed because the watermark is embedded while training the host network. Finally, we perform comprehensive experiments to reveal the potential of watermarking deep neural networks as the basis of this new research effort. We show that our framework can embed a watermark during the training of a deep neural network from scratch, and during fine-tuning and distilling, without impairing its performance. The embedded watermark does not disappear even after fine-tuning or parameter pruning; the watermark remains complete even after 65% of parameters are pruned. read more

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