Distributional Smoothing with Virtual Adversarial Training

2 Jul 2015  ·  Takeru Miyato, Shin-ichi Maeda, Masanori Koyama, Ken Nakae, Shin Ishii ·

We propose local distributional smoothness (LDS), a new notion of smoothness for statistical model that can be used as a regularization term to promote the smoothness of the model distribution. We named the LDS based regularization as virtual adversarial training (VAT). The LDS of a model at an input datapoint is defined as the KL-divergence based robustness of the model distribution against local perturbation around the datapoint. VAT resembles adversarial training, but distinguishes itself in that it determines the adversarial direction from the model distribution alone without using the label information, making it applicable to semi-supervised learning. The computational cost for VAT is relatively low. For neural network, the approximated gradient of the LDS can be computed with no more than three pairs of forward and back propagations. When we applied our technique to supervised and semi-supervised learning for the MNIST dataset, it outperformed all the training methods other than the current state of the art method, which is based on a highly advanced generative model. We also applied our method to SVHN and NORB, and confirmed our method's superior performance over the current state of the art semi-supervised method applied to these datasets.

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