Dynamic Routing on Deep Neural Network for Thoracic Disease Classification and Sensitive Area Localization

17 Aug 2018  ·  Yan Shen, Mingchen Gao ·

We present and evaluate a new deep neural network architecture for automatic thoracic disease detection on chest X-rays. Deep neural networks have shown great success in a plethora of visual recognition tasks such as image classification and object detection by stacking multiple layers of convolutional neural networks (CNN) in a feed-forward manner... However, the performance gain by going deeper has reached bottlenecks as a result of the trade-off between model complexity and discrimination power. We address this problem by utilizing the recently developed routing-by agreement mechanism in our architecture. A novel characteristic of our network structure is that it extends routing to two types of layer connections (1) connection between feature maps in dense layers, (2) connection between primary capsules and prediction capsules in final classification layer. We show that our networks achieve comparable results with much fewer layers in the measurement of AUC score. We further show the combined benefits of model interpretability by generating Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) for localization. We demonstrate our results on the NIH chestX-ray14 dataset that consists of 112,120 images on 30,805 unique patients including 14 kinds of lung diseases. read more

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