Efficient LLM Comparative Assessment: a Product of Experts Framework for Pairwise Comparisons

9 May 2024  ·  Adian Liusie, Vatsal Raina, Yassir Fathullah, Mark Gales ·

LLM-as-a-judge approaches are a practical and effective way of assessing a range of text tasks, aligning with human judgements especially when applied in a comparative assessment fashion. However, when using pairwise comparisons to rank a set of candidates the computational costs scale quadratically with the number of candidates, which can have practical limitations. This paper introduces a Product of Expert (PoE) framework for efficient LLM Comparative Assessment. Here individual comparisons are considered experts that provide information on a pair's score difference. The PoE framework combines the information from these experts to yield an expression that can be maximized with respect to the underlying set of candidates, and is highly flexible where any form of expert can be assumed. When Gaussian experts are used one can derive simple closed-form solutions for the optimal candidate ranking, as well as expressions for selecting which comparisons should be made to maximize the probability of this ranking. Our approach enables efficient comparative assessment, where by using only a small subset of the possible comparisons, one can generate score predictions that correlate as well to human judgements as the predictions when all comparisons are used. We evaluate the approach on multiple NLG tasks and demonstrate that our framework can yield considerable computational savings when performing pairwise comparative assessment. When N is large, with as few as 2% of comparisons the PoE solution can achieve similar performance to when all comparisons are used.

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